渣打公司的客家移民計劃:沙巴客家基督徒的移民史

The Hakka immigration program of chartered companies:&nbsp;<br>The immigrant history of the Hakka Christians in Sabah
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However, the first group of Chinese immigrants Medhurst recruited were not up to task and did poorly in developing the local area. This prompted the chartered company to specifically seek out the Hakka population with their pioneering capabilities and spirit, as an immigrant group.<br>", "weight": 1, "musicName": "無", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-74jz7bmdn6": { "id": "basic-74jz7bmdn6", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "f2c868d0ebda3ca5306b841f49a3e78f", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/4c94cc40bf5bce8a41f2b88c49152674.jpg?itok=3y1Gswnb", "level": "primary", "title": "黎力基 Rudolf Lechler", "desc": "黎力基被認為是潮汕地區的宣教先鋒。Rudolf Lechler considered to be a pioneer of missionary work in the Chaoshan area.", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/4c94cc40bf5bce8a41f2b88c49152674.jpg?itok=AjiUpPZn", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/4c94cc40bf5bce8a41f2b88c49152674.jpg?itok=Ueq2MDNj", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/4c94cc40bf5bce8a41f2b88c49152674.jpg?itok=DNHbEUI5", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/4c94cc40bf5bce8a41f2b88c49152674.jpg?itok=LiqKwJcJ", "mfid": "4c94cc40bf5bce8a41f2b88c49152674", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "巴色差會使命21檔案館", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-可用於本站提供的服務", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "巴色差會的黎力基與沙巴移民", "desc": "<b>Rudolf Lechler of the Basel Mission and Sabah immigrants<br></b><br><br>渣打公司正尋求新墾殖移民來源的同時,中國華南一帶歷經太平天國起義失敗、清廷政府追捕相關的人士,巴色差會的黎力基正急著客家人尋求移民地。<br><br>提供船票和土地作為移民措施的北婆羅洲便是其中一個教會鎖定的地區。黎力基在1882年派出兩名探員前往當地考察,並且在會見總督徐列車後與對方簽訂移民合約。1883年1月,首批客家基督徒乘船前往古達,根據沙巴文史工作者張德來的調查,由渣打公司與巴色差會合作的移民計劃至少有九次。<br><br><span>While the British <span>North Borneo Chartered Company sought immigrant pioneers, a group of people in southern China implicated by the failed Taiping Heavenly Kingdom rebellion, were being pursued by the Qing dynasty government. Rudolf Lechler of the Basel Mission was anxiously seeing a place for this group to immigrate to.<br><br></span></span><span>With the promise of a fare of passage and land grants, North Borneo was one of the areas designated by the church for immigration. Lechler sent two men to visit the area and signed an immigration contract after meeting with then-governor general William Hood Treacher. The first group of Hakka Christians boarded a boat for Guda in January of 1883. According to Sabah historian CHONG Tet Loi, there were at least nine such immigration programs arranged by the Basel Mission and the British North Borneo Chartered Company.</span>", "weight": 2, "musicName": "無", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-emd1op7lio": { "id": "basic-emd1op7lio", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "6f6d08dee6ff8d2c3993bfeabbe7b675", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/dfce2d78c4065a2bb1b109d085a094af.jpg?itok=ambA2iuY", "level": "primary", "title": "北婆羅洲移民計畫章程封面 The Immigration Agreement to North Borneo", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/dfce2d78c4065a2bb1b109d085a094af.jpg?itok=X09IuU5U", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/dfce2d78c4065a2bb1b109d085a094af.jpg?itok=z-v0hCdI", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/dfce2d78c4065a2bb1b109d085a094af.jpg?itok=7lHwLM0C", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/dfce2d78c4065a2bb1b109d085a094af.jpg?itok=C4YRllVN", "mfid": "dfce2d78c4065a2bb1b109d085a094af", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "張德來", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "", "desc": "", "weight": 3, "musicName": "無", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-zpdwkl7zh7": { "id": "basic-zpdwkl7zh7", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "61e6f5df0bb6f4e8bf7a37781f24543a", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/e87b032782079f2d9d09a10dcc3d575e.jpg?itok=NsmjbzeM", "level": "primary", "title": "施靈光 Paul Schüle", "desc": "北婆羅洲移民計畫後期的主要推手 The Main Contributor of the Migration Schema in North Borneo", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/e87b032782079f2d9d09a10dcc3d575e.jpg?itok=kSHzCslQ", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/e87b032782079f2d9d09a10dcc3d575e.jpg?itok=n5iLF01W", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/e87b032782079f2d9d09a10dcc3d575e.jpg?itok=U7CbK1_U", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/e87b032782079f2d9d09a10dcc3d575e.jpg?itok=9onFzU-H", "mfid": "e87b032782079f2d9d09a10dcc3d575e", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "張德來", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "施靈光", "desc": "<b>Paul Schüle<br></b><span><br><br>北婆羅洲的客家移民計畫中後期的另一位靈魂人物是巴色差會傳教士施靈光(Paul Schüle),他在1898至1902年間於中國服務,隨後到了北婆羅洲<br><br>渣打公司在接收首數批客家移民後感到滿意,希望能通過巴色差會招募更多客家移民,雙方在1912年11月簽訂了更為優待的合約,以吸引移民前往開墾和居住。<br><br>這項移民計劃主要的特點是:客家基督徒通過巴色差會的篩選,直接與渣打公司簽約,以家庭為單位共同移民,他們在抵達北婆羅洲時便已經得到渣打公司劃分的土地與物資。<br><br></span><span>Another spiritual leader in the latter stages of the Hakka immigration program in North Borneo was Paul Schüle, a Basel Society missionary who<span>&nbsp;served in China from 1898 to 1902 before moving to North Borneo.<br><br></span></span>Satisfied with the first group of Hakka immigrants, the British <span>North Borneo Chartered Company hoped to recruit more Hakka immigrants through the Basel mission. The two sides signed a more favorable contract in November 1912 to attract more immigrants to reside in North Borneo and develop new land for farming.<br></span><br>The key points in this immigration program were: Hakka Christians were screened by the Basel Mission to sign direct contracts with the British North Borneo Chartered Company; the unit of immigration was the family; and immigrants were provided with land and resources upon their arrival in North Borneo.&nbsp;&nbsp;<br>", "weight": 4, "musicName": "無", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-js6scfr1wh": { "id": "basic-js6scfr1wh", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "a17da13d860fcc3779ff8e79f86ff4e0", "fileType": "video", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/muse_download/bd6e39c6a00031e774da47bc6e984349", "level": "primary", "title": "北婆羅洲客家移民計劃 The Hakka Migration Schema of North Borneo", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/externals/16f8d5b41aee4ce07343fa7e72b346fb.jpg?itok=LKdXFriu", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/thumbnail_medium/public/externals/16f8d5b41aee4ce07343fa7e72b346fb.jpg?itok=hLTbQ1X5", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/thumbnail_big/public/externals/16f8d5b41aee4ce07343fa7e72b346fb.jpg?itok=wwDgx-na", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/w1920/public/externals/16f8d5b41aee4ce07343fa7e72b346fb.jpg?itok=OYjNNnPC", "mfid": "bd6e39c6a00031e774da47bc6e984349", "fileCreator": "張維安", "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "北婆羅洲客家移民計劃 North Borneo Hakka Immigration Program", "desc": "訪問者:張維安院長<br>受訪者:張德來牧師<br>Interviewer: Dean<i>&nbsp;</i>CHANG<span>&nbsp;Wei-An<br></span>Interviewee: Rev. CHONG Tet Loi", "weight": 5, "musicName": "無", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-ab7td3mpdp": { "id": "basic-ab7td3mpdp", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "8fa614996901d96b2db10f3808c8c531", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/0adac9314427ac30e0601ac27ddf6ebd.jpg?itok=QaVwqVyg", "level": "primary", "title": "沙巴神學院院長涂恩友 The Principle of the Sabah Theological Seminary, Rev. Dr. Datuk Thu En Yu", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/0adac9314427ac30e0601ac27ddf6ebd.jpg?itok=dsxlG9I7", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/0adac9314427ac30e0601ac27ddf6ebd.jpg?itok=FHBIYf9a", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/0adac9314427ac30e0601ac27ddf6ebd.jpg?itok=NAc6_Ppt", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/0adac9314427ac30e0601ac27ddf6ebd.jpg?itok=9AkjNhZY", "mfid": "0adac9314427ac30e0601ac27ddf6ebd", "fileCreator": "陳彥楷 Benny Chan", "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "以教會為基礎形成的沙巴客家帶", "desc": "<b>The Sabah Hakka Region forms with the church as a foundation<br></b><span><br><br>在北婆羅洲,除了公會和廟宇等親屬組織,教會和教堂也是客家基督徒最早的社群組織,這些社團的作用在於聯繫族人、維護社會秩序和協助新移民安頓,在北婆羅洲被殖民的年代,社團是社會與地方非常重要的力量。<br><br>沙巴神學院院長涂恩友向研究團隊表示,沙巴自1880年代開埠以來,客家人在經濟與社會福祉上的投入,都在當地扮演了非常重要的角色。巴色差會初期到來的信徒,多數是赤手空拳來墾植的貧苦信徒,不過所幸渣打公司也提供土地和撥款資助建設教堂,讓信徒在沙巴當地有基本的基礎建立家園、教會、辦理學校。<br><br></span><span>Mission societies and churches were among the earliest community organizations for Hakka Christians in North Borneo, in addition to guilds and kinship organizations. These organizations functioned to connect kinsmen, maintain social order, and assist new immigrants. Community organizations were an important societal and regional force in the colonization of North Borneo.<br><br></span>Dr. Datuk Thu En Yu, principal of the Sabah Theological Seminary told the research team that the contributions of the Hakka people played an important role in the economic and social wellbeing in the local area since development began in Sabah in 1880. 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