清代科舉教戰守則
展覽頁面呈現形式
橫式
策展者
中央研究院歷史文物陳列館
黃睿文
展覽封面
9b77e8d93c93867757c446842f872721
展覽資料
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"<b>(清)江永《四書古人典林》</b>\n\n<br>江永(1681-1762)的《四書古人典林》為風靡有清一代的暢銷書,受士子推崇而不斷翻刻,共計有16種刊本。<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\">[1]</a>清代專門考據四書人物的書籍頗為豐富,江永指出「四書古人有典故可考者二百餘人」,這種整理性的教科書對於考生準備考試極為方便。本次展出的《四書人物類典串珠》也是清代另一本重要的暢銷書。\n\n<div><br>\n\n\n\n\n\n<div>\n\n<span><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\">[1]</a>&nbsp;參考沈俊平彙整列表。</span>沈俊平,〈清代坊刻四書舉業用書的生產活動〉,《漢學研究》,第30卷第3期(2012),頁239-241。</div>\n\n</div>", "weight": 38, "secondaryObj": { "level": "secondary", "oid": "b51c2c2ef1782d98f1024b7cb13f63b6", "title": "四書古人典林 十二卷/四書古人典林十二卷第1冊01", "desc": "清乾隆甲午(三十九)年(1774)小酉山房袖珍本", "thumbURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/34/39/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=TB58qLvi", "thumbMediumURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/34/39/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=grE14ACZ", "thumbBigURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/34/39/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=2WhxWd_Z", "mfid": 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"<b>梅花書院童生汪希藩考課試卷</b>\n\n<br>明清時期的書院,有點類似現今的補習班,主要教學活動呼應科舉考試需求,模擬科舉的考試應運而生,有的書院在模擬考後,彙集優秀作文範本編輯成冊,稱為「課藝」。本件展品模仿童生試卷格式,卷面印一小框兩個圓圈及名次,方框原本書寫府州縣名,兩個圓圈則書寫文童、武童或廩生、增生、附生等訊息,在此則寫上了書院名。<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\">[1]</a>\n\n<div><br>\n\n\n\n\n\n<div>\n\n<span><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\">[1]</a>&nbsp;</span>楊學為、喬麗娟、李兵,《科舉圖錄》(長沙:岳麓書社,2013),頁142-158。</div>\n\n</div>", "weight": 40, "secondaryObj": { "level": "secondary", "oid": "e93f4daf31a51ae44ce66b4101d49b4e", "title": "梅花書院童生試卷", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/35/38/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=RBgKaM_l", "thumbMediumURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/35/38/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=CCizPP_D", "thumbBigURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/35/38/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=mP02Pt4L", "mfid": "503f6ca9d386e4c3ee5b8c049ba56711", "fileURI": 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"https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/36/31/32/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=S_YFhmhR", "thumbBigURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/36/31/32/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=TgYWGooS", "mfid": "f28fe2124623d4933531a0ac612f9722", "fileCreator": "林伯桐", "rights": "中央研究院歷史語言研究所", "rightsLogo": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "<b>林伯桐《公車見聞錄》</b>\n\n<br>《公車見聞錄》為廣東舉人林伯桐(?-1847)所撰,書中囊括了一位廣東考生進京趕考需要的各項實用知識,例如:趕考路線、租屋介紹、租車注意事項、帶入考場的文具組,以及一路上各地值得一吃的名產。", "weight": 42 }, "basic-lldde5vy4z": { "id": "basic-lldde5vy4z", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "4af0e2ece44e4d6f9401b90543d1f215", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/w1024/muse/34/32/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=nMWtKr72", "level": 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rel=\"nofollow\">[1]<br></a></span>\n\n清代士子在「貢院」應試,一座貢院視該省份考生人數建立號舍數量,明清時期的貢院已形成較為統一的建築布局,少則三四千間,多則兩萬餘間,通常是所在城市的最大建築群和地標性建築,每排號舍都用千字文編號,以便考生識別。此照片源自庚子時期(1900年左右)德國駐華大使Alfons von Mumm所拍攝之順天貢院,考生檢搜完畢一入貢院,走道中央便是巨大的古槐樹與高三層的明遠樓,明遠樓四面無牆,用以監考、巡視考場中有無作弊等情形。\n\n<div><br>\n\n\n\n\n\n<div>\n\n<span><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\">[1]</a> Ein Tagebuch in Bildern: meinen\nMitarbeitern in Peking zur freundlichen Erinnerung an ihren Chef Alfons von\nMumm, kaiserlicher ausserordentlicher Gesandter und bevollmächtigter Minister</span>\n\n</div>\n\n</div>", "weight": 56 }, "basic-5hsinsgl4q": { "id": "basic-5hsinsgl4q", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "2156990d6b8007b2e8690edd8a7b1c89", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://ihp.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_ihp/muse_styles/w1024/muse/36/32/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=07ka6B3l", "level": "primary", "title": "商衍鎏《清代科舉考試述錄》", "desc": "", "thumbURI": 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rel=\"nofollow\">[1]</a>金榜在東長安門外懸掛三天後繳回內閣。傳臚大典後賞賜恩榮宴,相關執事官員以及新科進士,又稱瓊林宴,接著新科進士們在狀元的帶領下需上表謝恩,接著狀元再率領諸進士擇日前往孔廟行釋褐禮,祭孔儀式完成後,才算完成整個「金榜題名」的流程。<br></span>\n\n<br>鄉、會試都需刊刻題名錄,題名錄格式並不固定,一般來說含括主考官員名字、中試考生資料,部分題名錄還收錄考題、優秀考生的答案卷,還有一種稱鄉、會試錄,還包含正副主考官的前後序言。題名錄最開始僅供皇帝、皇后、太后御覽,後來也作為各地官府錄用官員,以及處理相關問題時的查核依據。鄉、會試錄也需送繳一份呈皇帝御覽,也可以作為禮物奏送給中試者的親友,也有中試者自行刊刻試卷內容,將此榮耀與更多人分享。<br>\n\n通過皇帝主持的殿試後便是天子門生,具無上的榮耀,清代規定每科殿試後,為諸位進士在國子監設立題名碑,清代前後所立題名碑共118通,數量壯觀,對古代讀書人來說也是種極高的精神獎勵。\n\n<br><br>進士後的出路最初以「館選」決定,選取其中一批人為翰林院庶吉士,雍正後改為「朝考」,考題由皇帝欽定,多與時政相關,朝考通過被選為庶吉士者將入翰林院學習三年,再經由考試,授予翰林院編修、檢討,或分發至六部主事或外任知縣。\n\n<div><br>\n\n\n\n\n\n<div>\n\n<span><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\">[1]</a> 乾隆二十六年(1761)年後殿試訂為四月二十一日,傳臚大典二十五日在太和殿舉行。</span>\n\n</div>\n\n</div>", "weight": 76 }, "basic-gqdctpjgm8": { "id": "basic-gqdctpjgm8", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "d196c61e2094f8fe908a2758faf25789", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": 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中央研究院歷史文物陳列館黃睿文