海棠花,林檎果

牆外花徑特展-果部之一
展覽頁面呈現形式
橫式
策展者
黃生
楊智凱
莊貴竣
展覽封面
f939096b294d6fc5dd615d0b0a2f2b9c
展覽資料
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"[中譯]木瓜,日文名稱為ひぼけ(hiboke)花呈深紅色果實呈圓狀,與「木瓜かいどうぼけ(kaidouboke)」相同,以上兩種皆味道酸可食用且無鼻(譯者按:植物的氣孔),頭尾呈凹狀,全部可作為藥用。(頁九前頁)\n\n翻譯:林玟君", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/c9169345507e430c9edf7ad90d0c1f3d.jpg?itok=H1uxlEK8", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/c9169345507e430c9edf7ad90d0c1f3d.jpg?itok=w75ZEKbw", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/c9169345507e430c9edf7ad90d0c1f3d.jpg?itok=hAnc0Idc", "mfid": "c9169345507e430c9edf7ad90d0c1f3d", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/c9169345507e430c9edf7ad90d0c1f3d.jpg?itok=_BnU7goJ", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "岩崎常正", "rights": "行政院農業委員會林業試驗所", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false, "level": "primary" }, "sortable": true, "type": "imgs-child", "weight": 7 } }, "weight": 14, "title": "觀察本草圖譜中的海棠花", "desc": "藉由上述海棠四品的介紹,可以試著觀察在本草圖譜當中各種海棠的特徵是否符合,畫中有沒有描繪出喬木與灌木的植株特性、枝條上是否具有尖刺、花梗的長度等。" }, "text-qshj7cdns4": { "id": "text-qshj7cdns4", "type": "text", "sortable": true, "weight": 15, "title": "海棠無香", "desc": "海棠花有腥紅、緋紅、淡紅和白等色,千嬌百媚,<br>但唯一可惜的地方就是海棠花幾乎沒有香味,讓許多文人雅士留下遺憾。<br>* 晉代的富豪石崇,看到海棠花時曾經嘆氣說:「汝若能香,當以金屋貯汝。」<br>* 北宋彭淵材把「海棠無香」視之為平生五恨之一。<br>* 張愛玲在《紅樓夢靨》嘆人生三恨,「一恨鰣魚多刺,二恨海棠無香,<br>&nbsp; &nbsp;三恨紅樓未完」。<br><br>" }, "quote-73llh9ndx7": { "id": "quote-73llh9ndx7", "type": "quote", "sortable": true, "weight": 16, "desc": "從古到今能讓人有這麼多憾恨之情的花,恐怕就是屬海棠了。其實美而不香的花滿山滿谷,只是對它有特別的厚愛,就有更多期待! 明末清初的<u>李漁稱</u>說的「海棠不盡無香,香在隱約之間」,就是這份期待啊。" }, "img-fq0kom2xk5": { "id": "img-fq0kom2xk5", "type": "img", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "a2d8f24834d63ee5f2084f171644a06f", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/24e69e0be760c8f9d01aab97765cf95c.jpg?itok=ndcZtQKj", "level": "primary", "title": "西府海棠_種子", "desc": "Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0)\nhttps://www.flickr.com/photos/61218143@N04/6905549572/in/photolist-s2Wngp-f1oNgf-27eXj1J-26XSv4T-JFvPg2-26XStP8-JFvRac-bwdKiw", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/24e69e0be760c8f9d01aab97765cf95c.jpg?itok=jeVnErpf", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/24e69e0be760c8f9d01aab97765cf95c.jpg?itok=w6XGF0MN", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/24e69e0be760c8f9d01aab97765cf95c.jpg?itok=fttUm0PC", "mfid": "24e69e0be760c8f9d01aab97765cf95c", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "Babij", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "海棠的傳播", "desc": "海棠屬的植物因為種子被堅硬的內果皮包住,因此能夠不受傷害地順利通過動物的腸道,<br>從起源地藉由動物向四處傳播。", "weight": 17 }, "text-aeygb4e5wm": { "id": "text-aeygb4e5wm", "type": "text", "sortable": true, "weight": 18, "title": "海棠的絲路歷程", "desc": "<span>依物種發生和演化的理論推斷,一個物種的發生少說也要一百萬年,之後的傳播和分化都受大自然的有機、無機環境的影響。像海棠這類植物,它們的祖先約在一千多萬年前出現在天山山脈,它能結鮮豔多汁的,像山楂(<i>Crataegus</i>)一樣的有長長果柄,豌豆大的小果實,吸引了鳥類、鹿、馬和駱駝的採食,小海棠的種子就被這此鳥獸四處傳播,也通過西伯利亞傳到了新大陸(Barrie E. Juniper (2007)。<br><div><br></div><div>由天山山脈出發向東行,經過一千萬年長期的擴散和當地大自然選擇(天擇),能適應的,就分別在各地種化成湖北、湖南、四川,隴東(甘肅),西府(陝西),沙果子(河北),山荊子(東北,西伯利亞),滇池(雲南)等二十多個,各具地方特色種。這樣一條源遠流長的路徑,有點像人類兩千年前走出來的絲路。不同的是:人類打開的是貿易,植物流通的是基因。</div></span>" }, "img-lae65jper9": { "id": "img-lae65jper9", "type": "img", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "359661c4e94f16e18db59d4dadff00d1", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/1919005a2f0179bfab0ab76830442432.jpg?itok=zTYC-woL", "level": "primary", "title": "海棠傳播路線", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/1919005a2f0179bfab0ab76830442432.jpg?itok=i55W6dwS", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/1919005a2f0179bfab0ab76830442432.jpg?itok=zs0YGCdI", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/1919005a2f0179bfab0ab76830442432.jpg?itok=tAvAluFg", "mfid": "1919005a2f0179bfab0ab76830442432", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "莊貴竣", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "海棠的傳播路線", "desc": "<span>海棠類,也是蘋果屬<span>(<i>Malus</i>)</span>的起源地在天山一帶,向中原地帶流傳(紅色的線),再四處傳播、適應、分化成二十多種,散佈在中國各地。</span>", "weight": 19 }, "quote-4k8btnur97": { "id": "quote-4k8btnur97", "type": "quote", "sortable": true, "weight": 20, "desc": "除了鳥獸以外,人類對於海棠屬種類分化的選擇力道更大,從實生果樹選種,嫁接,異配(雜合),雜交等人工育種技術,栽培出更符合人類需要的經濟植物。其中最知名的案例就是海棠屬中的蘋果。" }, "text-wldht5tmbc": { "id": "text-wldht5tmbc", "type": "text", "sortable": true, "weight": 21, "title": "蘋果的育種與起源", "desc": "<span>和蘋果親緣關係最接近的兩種海棠分別是:「花紅」,又稱沙果子<span>(<i>Malus asiatica</i>)</span>,和「秋子」,又稱大碇子<span>(<i>M. prunifolia</i> (Willdenow) Borkhausen))</span>,這兩種海棠的果實比其他的海棠果都大(果徑2公分以上)。我們的祖先以前就懂得選擇果實大的花紅、秋子實生果樹,運用選種,嫁接,異配(同種不同基因型),雜交(不同種的交配)等人工育種技術,育成和野生種不同的奈、林檎、來禽等栽培種果樹。早在西漢時,來禽果就被用做薰屋子的香果了。據現代的研究報告推斷(Juniper 2007)<span>,生長在陝甘內蒙等高地的大碇子和沙果子,最像是育成林檎的始祖。《廣志》,《西京雜記》,《本草綱目》等古書也有下列記載:柰有白、赤、青三種,張掖有白柰,酒泉有赤柰,來禽、林檎似赤柰,春秋柰大如兔頭。南宋<u>陳思</u>《海棠譜》說林檎開粉紅花,果實圓而芳香,味甜美。</span></span>" }, "img-92kavqki04": { "id": "img-92kavqki04", "type": "img", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "057b5c4afeb1d00a9399923d3bae699d", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/f3c80a90293d338e326b5da65de9db7a.jpg?itok=ne-PuOqx", "level": "primary", "title": "清蔣廷錫花卉 冊 果熟來禽", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/f3c80a90293d338e326b5da65de9db7a.jpg?itok=JFYBkdcg", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/f3c80a90293d338e326b5da65de9db7a.jpg?itok=DZyHlChg", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/f3c80a90293d338e326b5da65de9db7a.jpg?itok=We14kBE1", "mfid": "f3c80a90293d338e326b5da65de9db7a", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "國立故宮博物院", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-僅能瀏覽", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "究竟是來禽還是來檎(林檎)?", "desc": "當時的畫家很喜歡繪製果熟來禽的主題,那因為蘋果味甜,能引來眾禽於林,於是乎蘋果也有了林檎、來檎之名。<br>從鳥和果實的體型對比一下應該就可估計在當時林檎果的大小了。", "weight": 22 }, "basic-mmq6q4ottg": { "id": "basic-mmq6q4ottg", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "ea549102a7105669337545bdf17d00fc", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/adcf90ba7d3c748910483e137ce8818e.jpg?itok=-Kp5_9MN", "level": "primary", "title": "林檎", "desc": "[中譯]樹與海紅相似,樹皮背呈大片白色約一丈多,葉也與海紅相似大而厚呈紅色梨狀,春月嫩苗中有五瓣的淡紅色花簇生,結實有五六顆如石梨般圓形,熟成的話向日處會變成紅色且味道甜美。(頁二前頁、頁二後頁)\n\n翻譯:林玟君", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/adcf90ba7d3c748910483e137ce8818e.jpg?itok=HkqHdvls", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/adcf90ba7d3c748910483e137ce8818e.jpg?itok=LXKzw850", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/adcf90ba7d3c748910483e137ce8818e.jpg?itok=kV4PqVSZ", "mfid": "adcf90ba7d3c748910483e137ce8818e", "fileCreator": "岩崎常正", "rights": "行政院農業委員會林業試驗所", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "本草圖譜中的林檎與奈", "desc": "觀察圖譜中的林檎果,可以發現果實的尺寸已經和現在的蘋果十分相近,而且熟成時也會慢慢變紅。", "weight": 23, "secondaryObj": { "level": "secondary", "oid": "dd2e76f62bc89acf2cfe52c47a28c65e", "title": "柰/奈", "desc": "[中譯]樹一、二丈多,葉與蘋果相似頗長,春月有五瓣淡紅色花,之後結實也與蘋果相似長而大,成熟為紅色,甚是美麗。接枝於海紅可生長良好,若水(譯者按:日本江戶時代物理學家、化學家、本草學家稻生若水)云不論津輕或信濃都有,其果實可曝曬於陽光下遠送等,於《大和本草》(日本江戶時期本草學家貝原益軒著,1709年出版,共21卷)載味道與蘋果相似,甘甜而香,可以治療酒病。(頁一前頁、頁一後頁)\n\n翻譯:林玟君", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/28cdf89bc1684a27b1065b0bd1d721ec.jpg?itok=fUeL-76w", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/28cdf89bc1684a27b1065b0bd1d721ec.jpg?itok=hViW3oRx", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/28cdf89bc1684a27b1065b0bd1d721ec.jpg?itok=G0b4XVqa", "mfid": "28cdf89bc1684a27b1065b0bd1d721ec", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/28cdf89bc1684a27b1065b0bd1d721ec.jpg?itok=6Zu_5eCY", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "岩崎常正", "rights": "行政院農業委員會林業試驗所", "rightsLogo": 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黃生楊智凱莊貴竣