What You May Not Know About the Hakka

The Encounter between the Hakka People and Christianity
展覽頁面呈現形式
橫式
時間軸
A chronological comparison of the Hakka movement in Taiwan's churches and in society
策展者
Huang Shiun-wey
Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica
展覽封面
993cc5c27d72765562808126c75ecd17
展覽資料
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This led to an obsession for opium among the Chinese, and ignited the two Opium Wars in 1840 and 1856. With the signing of the unequal treaties, such as the \"Treaty of Tientsin\" and the \"Convention of Peking,\" policies prohibiting missionary work in China were reversed to allow people to convert to other religions; and European and American missions began sending missionaries to the Far East.", "weight": 5, "secondaryObj": { "level": "secondary", "oid": "8f853c25fa429211d19da605abce4880", "title": "南京條約簽署 The Signing of the Treaty of Nanking", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/7894f0e0cfd485b1971c523f27358bf0.jpg?itok=F0n85KJO", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/7894f0e0cfd485b1971c523f27358bf0.jpg?itok=_UlZ_LVO", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/7894f0e0cfd485b1971c523f27358bf0.jpg?itok=NADyy4p-", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/7894f0e0cfd485b1971c523f27358bf0.jpg?itok=Vxfo_Sb6", "mfid": "7894f0e0cfd485b1971c523f27358bf0", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/7894f0e0cfd485b1971c523f27358bf0.jpg?itok=LIwVn7QS", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "Captain John Platt, Bengal Volunteers. 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Notably among these was the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, an important conflict during the late Qing Dynasty. The upheaval highlighted the hardships endured by the people of that era who found themselves caught in the tug-of-war between the regime of the late-Qing Dynasty and Western forces; it also presented a point of entry for European and American missions and missionaries.<div><br>◈&nbsp;For more stories: <a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/45af4f9b1892c173f6210f6e4af637cc\">The connections between the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom and Christian Churches</a><br></div></span>", "weight": 6, "musicName": "無", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "imgs-txpn8xa21z": { "id": "imgs-txpn8xa21z", "type": "imgs", "sortable": true, "multiObjs": [ { "oid": "5efca1b8e28e50a15ddf82faf2d54d2e", "title": "以客為榮 The Proud of Being Hakka", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/2fcbe65a3c673908af0ccc8b4de0dbc0.jpg?itok=-cS7Q1Gv", "thumbMediumURI": 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The church sent missionaries to foreign lands to preach, funding their travel and living expenses, etc.<br><br></span><span>In the process of introducing Christianity to the region many missionaries stayed on in Asia to preach the gospel, to consolidate resources, to establish schools, and to practice medicine. German missionary Karl Gützlaff, who began preaching in Java in 1827, observed that South China and Southeast Asia were areas where the gospel should be preached. 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They could be regarded as pioneers of contemporary Hakka studies. <br><br>◈ More here:&nbsp;<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/8c1efde8b330c7b21783fe129ed3c675\">The Story of Missionaries who Preached Halfway Across the Globe</a><br><br></div></span>", "weight": 10, "secondaryObj": { "level": "secondary", "oid": "e4e471e8f5a5572ff2978ca5291a5d40", "title": "巴色差會傳教士飄洋過海來傳教 The Basel Missionary Went Overseas to Preach", "desc": "巴色差會於1815年成立於瑞士的巴塞爾市,最初取名為德國差會,後改名為巴色差會。\nThe Basel Mission was founded on September 25, 1815, in Basel, in the German-speaking quarter of northern Switzerland. 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Laying the foundation for missionary work in the northern network was Zhang Fuxing (Tsang Fuk Ming), who left to work in Hong Kong in his youth and returned to preach in his hometown.</span><br>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 18, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-n2t27q3dzc": { "id": "basic-n2t27q3dzc", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "989300c796438e6cd1270fb270b29ae3", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/9fca8e713ae35e7e4425730e1ca84aac.jpg?itok=yz2SN_bd", "level": "primary", "title": "1910年巴色教會廣東省內教區分佈 Map of the Basel Mission catchment areas in Canton in 1910.", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/9fca8e713ae35e7e4425730e1ca84aac.jpg?itok=DTp2JeMM", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/9fca8e713ae35e7e4425730e1ca84aac.jpg?itok=rHdcvPHy", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/9fca8e713ae35e7e4425730e1ca84aac.jpg?itok=2y7k_pWW", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/9fca8e713ae35e7e4425730e1ca84aac.jpg?itok=4kSKKtas", "mfid": "9fca8e713ae35e7e4425730e1ca84aac", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "巴色差會使命21檔案館", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-僅能瀏覽", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "The Northern and Southern Societies of Hakka churches in the Guangdong area", "desc": "<span>The Basel Mission’s time in Guangdong spanned six decades, beginning with the arrival of Theodore Hamberg and Rudolf Lechler in Hong Kong in 1847. By 1910, the mission had established churches in about two-thirds of the Hakka areas of Guangdong Province.<br><br></span><span><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/embed/remark/118151\" class=\"lightbox-link js-mfp-iframe\">A 1916 map of the “Three B” churches</a><br></span><br>The dioceses were mainly distributed around two districts in southern China. Hong Kong and Shenzhen, east of the Pearl River estuary formed the Southern Society; and the inland Dongjiang and Meijiang river basins formed the Northern Society. The Southern Society was centered around Hong Kong, where the Tsung Tsin Mission was later established; the Northern Society was centered around Wuhua (county) and continued to preach to Hakka communities inland.", "musicName": "無", "weight": 19, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "img-hupg1ra34c": { "id": "img-hupg1ra34c", "type": "img", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "d536071d7246dc24439f23a10cace718", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/888f20311e12324cd2dc3c4b11ba106a.jpg?itok=ZU3B7cOV", "level": "primary", "title": "巴色差會於香港建立的教會 The footprint of the Basel Mission in Hong Kong", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/888f20311e12324cd2dc3c4b11ba106a.jpg?itok=fvhJeip7", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/888f20311e12324cd2dc3c4b11ba106a.jpg?itok=jc2YwHyJ", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/888f20311e12324cd2dc3c4b11ba106a.jpg?itok=PGE9bkxs", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/888f20311e12324cd2dc3c4b11ba106a.jpg?itok=7JB6wU6a", "mfid": "888f20311e12324cd2dc3c4b11ba106a", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "楊枝菁", "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "The Basel Mission in Hong Kong and the Self-Governance of the Tsung Tsin Mission", "desc": "<span>The Tsung Tsin Mission established a total of eight churches in Hong Kong from the time Theodore Hamburg first set up a chapel in the Hong Kong’s Western District in 1851. When China legally permitted Western missionaries to preach in inland areas of China, the Basel Mission’s work thrived beyond their development in Hong Kong, and the focus of their missionary work shifted to Guangdong province. However, the Society’s center of missionary operations for the Asian region remained in Hong Kong for political and operational considerations.<br><br></span><span>By 1925, As the local diocese matured, expansions and economic conditions of the Tsung Tsin Mission enabled the mission to operate independently of the Basel Mission Society, which enabled missionaries to establish new diocese in other regions. Renowned Hakka expert Lo Hsiang-lin later joined the Tsung Tsin Mission.<br></span><br>◈ Find out more: <a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/4e11d93f2454af9a1f956cfcc24615ce\">Tsung Tsin Mission and Hakka Expert Lo Hsiang-lin</a><br>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 20, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "img-xar27bektj": { "id": "img-xar27bektj", "type": "img", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "8fca04b65d560af80d77e3ab524c5b56", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/ede639fa248e2f7fec7a67fba644ab1b.jpg?itok=ft6i1xBR", "level": "primary", "title": "樟村宣教站 Tschong-tshoun, a station of the Basel Mission in China", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/ede639fa248e2f7fec7a67fba644ab1b.jpg?itok=rZyqAKjm", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/ede639fa248e2f7fec7a67fba644ab1b.jpg?itok=uiouYxj0", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/ede639fa248e2f7fec7a67fba644ab1b.jpg?itok=zWYVekTB", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/ede639fa248e2f7fec7a67fba644ab1b.jpg?itok=CY0DWJ9l", "mfid": "ede639fa248e2f7fec7a67fba644ab1b", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "巴色差會使命21檔案館", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-可用於本站提供的服務", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Zhang Fuxing (Tsang Fuk Ming)and the Zhangcun Church", "desc": "<span>Surrounded by dense forests, Zhangcun is a village situated in the rural mountains of Meizhou, Guangdong Province.<br><br></span><span>After Zhang Fuxing converted to Christianity, he established “prayer meetings” and “guidance meetings” with the local faithful in Zhangcun. In 1858, he and the villagers raised a sum of money to build a church in Zhangcun, named “Gospel Hall.” It was the first church in the Hakka regions around Dongjiang and Meijiang rivers. The church later expanded to the surrounding areas, and the Zhangcun Church was given the accolades of “The Foundation of the Northern Mission Societies” and “Mother to the Faithful.”<br><br></span>◈<span> Find out more: <a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/3c74a54537e9945eeda7cb41632386c7\">The first seeds of the gospel in Hakka regions -- the story of Zhang Fuxing and the Basel Mission Society.</a></span><br>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 21, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "img-afgmuxxdmw": { "id": "img-afgmuxxdmw", "type": "img", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "adf8f28ea8f6d715afaf98b6e47a4280", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/728e7e0d6d2492928bf85c0012b613e9.jpg?itok=YIpkw_uT", "level": "primary", "title": "東江流域客家教會分布動態地圖 An animated map of Hakka chuches established in the Dongjiang River region", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/728e7e0d6d2492928bf85c0012b613e9.jpg?itok=tFy5Hmeu", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/728e7e0d6d2492928bf85c0012b613e9.jpg?itok=a5f4UzmD", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/728e7e0d6d2492928bf85c0012b613e9.jpg?itok=TDrhRW1Q", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/728e7e0d6d2492928bf85c0012b613e9.jpg?itok=1qS5xMKJ", "mfid": "728e7e0d6d2492928bf85c0012b613e9", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "The distribution and expansion of Hakka Churches in the Dongjiang river basin", "desc": "<span><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/embed/remark/113847\" class=\"lightbox-link js-mfp-iframe\">◎ Map</a><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/embed/remark/113847\" class=\"lightbox-link js-mfp-iframe\">&nbsp;of the Hakka church development in the Dongjiang river basin (click to view a dynamic map)</a><br><br></span>The early subjects for proselytizing were neighboring villagers and distant relations. 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The Hakka were no exception, especially with the failure of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. Followers and other Christians feared their involvement would lead to persecution, and many moved overseas. Traces of Hakka emigration can be seen in Hong Kong, the South China Sea, Africa, and the Americas.<br><br></span>Sabah, which was then known as British North Borneo, enabled group immigration for Hakka Christian’s and their families who signed contracts in advance. The Chinese immigrant community that formed in Sabah was predominantly Hakka Christians.", "musicName": "Unit D 4-0 計劃移民與沙巴客家教會.mp3", "weight": 24, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_exhibition_sound/Unit%20D%204-0%20%E8%A8%88%E5%8A%83%E7%A7%BB%E6%B0%91%E8%88%87%E6%B2%99%E5%B7%B4%E5%AE%A2%E5%AE%B6%E6%95%99%E6%9C%83_0.mp3" }, "basic-ymrfcw3dvt": { "id": "basic-ymrfcw3dvt", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "9df26f096dfcea3abc72a9246ab0c735", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/40263c09cdca0cf65c885365e960be55.jpg?itok=uM5vARva", "level": "primary", "title": "麥都思 Walter Henry Medhurst", "desc": "英國倫敦會傳道士、漢學家。曾被派遣至馬來亞、巴達維亞等地,在亞洲學習漢語、馬來語等語言,對於中國歷史與社會文化有深刻研究,並且也曾受僱於英屬婆羅洲殖民政府擔任駐中國移民專員,招募前往婆羅洲發展的華人移民。A sinologist and missionary from the London Society of England, Walter Henry Medhurst was sent to Malaya, Batavia and other places to learn Chinese, Malay and other Asian languages. He conducted in-depth research of Chinese history, society, and culture, and was employed by the British colonial government in North Borneo as a immigration commissioner based in China to attract Chinese immigrants to invest in Borneo.", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/40263c09cdca0cf65c885365e960be55.jpg?itok=b3_f3X7E", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/40263c09cdca0cf65c885365e960be55.jpg?itok=csbYlXdI", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/40263c09cdca0cf65c885365e960be55.jpg?itok=9uIAMjbl", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/40263c09cdca0cf65c885365e960be55.jpg?itok=nTamOqhp", "mfid": "40263c09cdca0cf65c885365e960be55", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "喬治·巴克斯特 George Baxter", "rights": "Wikimedia Commons", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "公眾領域標章(Public Domain Mark)", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "The Immigration Program with Chartered Companies", "desc": "Unlike the typical method of Chinese emigration colloquially called “selling [themselves as] pigs”, immigrants to Sabah, Malaysia stood apart in that this immigration overseas was planned: as a family unit, and upon arrival at the destination, these immigrants were provided with land and housing, etc., by local colonial “chartered companies;” they even formed communities through their churches. The Basel Mission played an important role in this Hakka immigration process.<br><br><span>◈<span> Find out more: <a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/dcc27948f24d6308ca61ec4f7a8a42be\">The Hakka Immigration Program of the Chartered Companies – the immigration history of the Hakka Christians in Sabah</a></span></span>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 25, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-inf9p5p6j3": { "id": "basic-inf9p5p6j3", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "ceb505c3798935c1ab39df4c9f674960", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/a2d76148e15b2d9d116c9563af3fb726.jpg?itok=Oaxk8EdF", "level": "primary", "title": "沙巴亞庇教堂成立匾額 An engraved plaque marking the founding of Jesseltoon Church", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/a2d76148e15b2d9d116c9563af3fb726.jpg?itok=lVzOII9c", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/a2d76148e15b2d9d116c9563af3fb726.jpg?itok=93y5wrqq", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/a2d76148e15b2d9d116c9563af3fb726.jpg?itok=Ijr_7Tzz", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/a2d76148e15b2d9d116c9563af3fb726.jpg?itok=C4b4alaZ", "mfid": "a2d76148e15b2d9d116c9563af3fb726", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "沙巴亞庇教會", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Self-governance of churches in Sabah, and Hakka missionary work around the world", "desc": "<span>The Basel Christian Church of Malaysia achieved self-governance, self-support, and self-propagation (“three-self formula”) <span>in 1925. To date, the church has spread throughout Malaysia, playing an important role in the preservation and continuation of Hakka culture and language in the region, and in Hakka missionary work around the world.<br><br></span></span><span>◈<span> Find out more: <a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/66e71ecc507cd051129ff6705f44c801\">The self-governing Sabah church and Hakka missionary work</a></span></span>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 26, "secondaryObj": { "level": "secondary", "oid": "c708f2f136eff61f560ed28552e8a98f", "title": "早期領聖餐時用的聖杯和聖盤 Early types of communion cups and paten", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/5ff0786bee3f2e235fb878e7163a43c9.jpg?itok=ojrx296X", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/5ff0786bee3f2e235fb878e7163a43c9.jpg?itok=8NV484RL", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/5ff0786bee3f2e235fb878e7163a43c9.jpg?itok=s-lstUMo", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/5ff0786bee3f2e235fb878e7163a43c9.jpg?itok=veIp0vUE", "mfid": "5ff0786bee3f2e235fb878e7163a43c9", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/5ff0786bee3f2e235fb878e7163a43c9.jpg?itok=0ro3YFTT", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "馬來西亞基督教巴色會老山堂 BCCM Lau San", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-olzs6whe18": { "id": "basic-olzs6whe18", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "2013928e38483878331331c76a41e590", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/e2190f3e3b89fa6f1f8d9f39164f13a9.jpg?itok=_971UHp_", "level": "primary", "title": "馬來西亞巴色會孟家達堂的成人詩班成員與策展人合影 A group photo of the Basel Mission Menggatal choir with the exhibition curator during their visit to the exhibition", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/e2190f3e3b89fa6f1f8d9f39164f13a9.jpg?itok=MPWkzagn", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/e2190f3e3b89fa6f1f8d9f39164f13a9.jpg?itok=b_eKqmhX", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/e2190f3e3b89fa6f1f8d9f39164f13a9.jpg?itok=A8tQbcLj", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/e2190f3e3b89fa6f1f8d9f39164f13a9.jpg?itok=rkpgkrzS", "mfid": "e2190f3e3b89fa6f1f8d9f39164f13a9", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Contemporary Malaysian Basel Mission", "desc": "The Basel Mission Society has over a century of history in Sabah. In addition to a rich cultural, immigration, and religious history, churches continue to consolidate their foundations in their local areas. In celebration of the centennial of the Basel Mission, churches in each area held celebratory events and issued special anniversary publications. 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As they are smaller in population than the Hoklo population, many missionaries relied on Hoklo dialect in proselytizing.<br><br>Hugh Ritchie, who arrived at Takao (Kaohsiung) in 1867 to preach in the mountain regions of southern Taiwan, placed significant importance to spreading the gospel within Hakka communities. He learned the Hakka dialect and described the Hakka culture, becoming a pioneer as a missionary in Taiwan’s Hakka regions.<br><br></span>◈ Find out more: <a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/6be55fd17fecc311717188a02b543816\">Hugh and Elizabeth Ritchie – pioneer missionaries in Hakka regions</a>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 29, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-uqsf5vf9rr": { "id": "basic-uqsf5vf9rr", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "1f612da374068fcee7e1bccc851bc7e5", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/0caf96d578de11cdec9f42ace7a28d12.jpg?itok=NqXKCxW2", "level": "primary", "title": "客家還我母語運動-01 The Hakka \"Restore My Mother Tongue\" movement in Taiwan (01)", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/0caf96d578de11cdec9f42ace7a28d12.jpg?itok=mEPTB9eA", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/0caf96d578de11cdec9f42ace7a28d12.jpg?itok=Flnopy5E", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/0caf96d578de11cdec9f42ace7a28d12.jpg?itok=wOnk9aCo", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/0caf96d578de11cdec9f42ace7a28d12.jpg?itok=PBnLgqnC", "mfid": "0caf96d578de11cdec9f42ace7a28d12", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "潘小俠", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "The Hakka language, the Hakka movement, and cultural identity", "desc": "<span>Post-war Taiwan was affected by the “national language” movement. The development of the Hakka language, regarded as a “dialect” was suppressed. The continuity of Hakka culture and identity also faced a crisis.<br><br></span><span>In the flowering of various social movements after the lifting of martial law, Hakka social movements also came to the fore. The inaugural issue ofHakka Affairs Monthly magazine in <span>1987 became a symbol of the beginning of new era of the Hakka movement. The “bring back my mother tongue” march following year demanded that the government recognize the development and position of Hakka dialect. In the churches, the Presbyterian Church and the Bible Society established the “Taiwan Hakka Bible Translation Committee,” indicating the commitment to the Presbyterian tradition of proselytizing in the mother tongues.<br><br></span></span>Over the course of the past 30 years, the effort to preserve the mother tongue and pass on the Hakka culture has made a multipronged approach in society and through the church. Hakka Christians have a sense of mission regarding the Hakka movement that began in the 1980s; through their work in translating the Hakka bible in the church, and passing down the mother tongue, they have reclaimed the right to cultural interpretation for the Hakka community.", "musicName": "無", "weight": 30, "secondaryObj": { "level": "secondary", "oid": "784aa025ee3e3e0bd2ba8378b3cfc67e", "title": "客家還我母語運動-02 The Hakka \"Restore My Mother Tongue\" movement in Taiwan (02)", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/313d531ccc34b1d6df1d157da0b8fe67.jpg?itok=XqYzfYMk", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/313d531ccc34b1d6df1d157da0b8fe67.jpg?itok=UQUtFI8V", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/313d531ccc34b1d6df1d157da0b8fe67.jpg?itok=CF_vZLze", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/313d531ccc34b1d6df1d157da0b8fe67.jpg?itok=3jaPlpa4", "mfid": "313d531ccc34b1d6df1d157da0b8fe67", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/313d531ccc34b1d6df1d157da0b8fe67.jpg?itok=tAkA5Kqv", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "潘小俠", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "timeline-aqg308d": { "id": "timeline-aqg308d", "type": "timeline", "sortable": true, "weight": 31, "sourceID": "115156" }, "basic-j59dsq680q": { "id": "basic-j59dsq680q", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "77e1a2581f43f953c88b5b5ebc78f6d6", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d.jpg?itok=BE3L6ZM3", "level": "primary", "title": "《客語聖經:新約㧯詩篇—現代臺灣客語譯本》1993年出版 Hakka Bible(1993)", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d.jpg?itok=78cmmH0A", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d.jpg?itok=eFseEOj3", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d.jpg?itok=vlVFcVfZ", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d.jpg?itok=Yrc8JQZN", "mfid": "627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "臺灣聖經公會", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Continuing efforts of the Hakka gospel in Taiwan. ", "desc": "<span>Prior to the rise of the Hakka social movement in the 1980s, Hakka pastors and faithful in Taiwanese churches were already conscious of the importance of integrating Hakka culture and language within the Christian faith. Though small in numbers, Hakka Christians in Taiwan have developed a wealth of Hakka Christian practices and cooperation in the past five decades, from the founding of the <span>Tsung Tsin Mission<span>, the Hakka Gospel Association, to the Hakka Gospel Seminary in 2016.<br><br></span></span></span>◈<span> Find out more: <a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/e2ef3fdf2aeb86f485c2dc636c673b63\">The History of Hakka evangelism in contemporary Taiwan</a></span><br>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 32, "secondaryObj": { "level": "secondary", "oid": "713d3371928a61cb9c2ccad249d32df6", "title": "大台北客家尊神敬祖大典: 客家聖樂團演唱《掃墓歌》The Hakka Christian Choir performs at a Hakka community ceremony to worship God and honor ancestors", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/15b18ecf369c5a33b4009f05aa84f17e.jpg?itok=UcMf2brs", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/15b18ecf369c5a33b4009f05aa84f17e.jpg?itok=lV8_5AJC", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/15b18ecf369c5a33b4009f05aa84f17e.jpg?itok=JBrPU64h", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/15b18ecf369c5a33b4009f05aa84f17e.jpg?itok=xqjeLthL", "mfid": "15b18ecf369c5a33b4009f05aa84f17e", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/15b18ecf369c5a33b4009f05aa84f17e.jpg?itok=0w90rSZi", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "img-lgcw2zcmnz": { "id": "img-lgcw2zcmnz", "type": "img", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "07fe140e7e7af48fb150240f994fd596", "fileType": "video", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/muse_download/f5385ea6a86ba0e7a9a19d36659a83c6", "level": "primary", "title": "客語聖經翻譯過程與朗讀 The Hakka Bible translation process and reading", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/externals/bedd6a154eaade2b459b24d383fdf63c.jpg?itok=-iCiR4q3", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/thumbnail_medium/public/externals/bedd6a154eaade2b459b24d383fdf63c.jpg?itok=2KO596V-", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/thumbnail_big/public/externals/bedd6a154eaade2b459b24d383fdf63c.jpg?itok=b06zlobO", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/w1920/public/externals/bedd6a154eaade2b459b24d383fdf63c.jpg?itok=gYRzTgnh", "mfid": "f5385ea6a86ba0e7a9a19d36659a83c6", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-僅能瀏覽", "fileDisableLink": "0", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Hakka translations of the Bible", "desc": "<span>The Bible is the world’s bestselling book and has been translated into more than 3000 languages. 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Huang Shiun-wey Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica