台灣的客語聖經翻譯歷史

台灣的客語聖經翻譯歷史

2021/08/26
2022/01/10
The translation history of the Hakka Bible in Taiwan
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Afterwards, the Hakka-language editions of the gospels of Luke and Matthew, Genesis, and Exodus were also published.<br><br></span></span>Like the Basel Mission Society, missionaries in Taiwan also used romanization of the Hoklo dialect as written text in printed Bibles and in publications. Dr. Thomas Barclay promoted the use of colloquial language in Taiwan so that churchgoers can read, learn, and sing hymns.<br>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 1, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "text-sj6lpnyf97": { "id": "text-sj6lpnyf97", "type": "text", "sortable": true, "musicName": "無", "weight": 2, "title": "早期客庄傳道的語言", "desc": "<b>The early proselytizing language in Hakka areas<br></b><span><span><br><br>臺灣的客家宣教史,可溯及李庥牧師在台灣服務的12年(1867-1879),他是一位具備語言意識,懂得透過在地客語學習輔助宣教的宣教師。然而在當時的臺灣,由於使用福佬話的人口與信眾較多,巴克禮博士、馬偕牧師等人皆主要以福佬話向臺灣人傳福音,再透過翻譯向客家人講解,無形中忽視了不同族群的語言使用。<br></span><span><br>馬偕牧師在回憶錄便記下他在竹苗客庄傳教時的發現:「<b>年輕一代的人都學習福佬話,因此將來客家話恐怕會消失。</b>」<br></span><br>以客語傳教的李庥牧師早逝後,臺灣在缺乏客語聖經、也缺乏以客家話傳教士的背景下,後繼在客家地區的傳道面臨語言與文化的困難。但也令往後的客家籍牧師、傳道人與信眾意識到文化、語言與宗教信仰之間密不可分的關聯。<br><br></span><span>The history of Hakka missions in Taiwan dates back to Rev Hugh Ritchie's&nbsp;12 years of service in Taiwan (1867-1879). As a missionary, he was conscious of learning to use the local language in his missionary work. However, in Taiwan at that time, there were more Hoklo-speaking believers in Taiwan, so Dr. Barclay and Rev. Mackay and others all preached to the Taiwanese using the Hoklo dialect, and relied on translators to explain to the Hakka, inadvertently <span>overlooking the linguistical differences between ethnic groups.<br><br></span></span><span>In his memoirs, Rev. Mackay noted his realization during his missions in the Hakka areas of Hsinchu and Miaoli that “<i><b>the younger generations are all learning to speak Hoklo; the Hakka language may soon be lost as a result</b>.</i>”<br><br></span>After the untimely death of the Hakka-speaking Rev. Hugh Ritchie, missionary work in Hakka regions presented language and cultural obstacles due to a lack of Hakka Bibles and Hakka-speaking missionaries.&nbsp;But, as a result, Hakka priests, preachers, and believers became aware of the inextricable links between culture, language, and religious belief.<br>", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "quote-2ehdflsas8": { "id": "quote-2ehdflsas8", "type": "quote", "sortable": true, "musicName": "無", "weight": 3, "desc": "<span>「<b>信徒的造就必須有適宜的文學教材,客庄宣道最大的缺憾,是早期沒有客語聖經及聖詩,信徒遂得不到很好的造就</b>」<br>〈臺灣北部客庄宣道簡史〉<br><br></span><i>\"The growth of believers requires suitable literary teaching materials. The greatest shortcoming of the Hakka mission is that there were no Hakka-language Bibles or hymnals in the early days, and the faithful were not able to have a good foundation.\"</i><i>-&nbsp;</i><i><b>A History of Mission Work in Northern Taiwan Hakka Communities</b></i>", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-azs8ls4cwf": { "id": "basic-azs8ls4cwf", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "eb5dc0fdd5c81c78fbbf3b66535b7851", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/f669946f5f33c47e5ce085e7595d1ff1.jpg?itok=W4aqs0dx", "level": "primary", "title": "《臺灣南北統一客家白話字進教須知》封面", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/f669946f5f33c47e5ce085e7595d1ff1.jpg?itok=QEV3ar_i", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/f669946f5f33c47e5ce085e7595d1ff1.jpg?itok=YwyuZpdL", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/f669946f5f33c47e5ce085e7595d1ff1.jpg?itok=LmXe8jYu", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/f669946f5f33c47e5ce085e7595d1ff1.jpg?itok=B8_-RKgV", "mfid": "f669946f5f33c47e5ce085e7595d1ff1", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "邱善雄", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "請輸入頁面說明", "musicName": "無", "weight": 4, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-jzq027mrz6": { "id": "basic-jzq027mrz6", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "b66cb652105c5dda89af950d0749e4ac", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/25b6eecf2875eae83984faf0efe7f9ee.jpg?itok=3_13HEg-", "level": "primary", "title": "《臺灣南北統一客家白話字進教須知》內頁", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/25b6eecf2875eae83984faf0efe7f9ee.jpg?itok=PH8URW2Y", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/25b6eecf2875eae83984faf0efe7f9ee.jpg?itok=Z7aOvtA5", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/25b6eecf2875eae83984faf0efe7f9ee.jpg?itok=3dhc1ltK", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/25b6eecf2875eae83984faf0efe7f9ee.jpg?itok=Q4x6sU62", "mfid": "25b6eecf2875eae83984faf0efe7f9ee", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "邱善雄", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "臺灣教會的客語聖經需求", "desc": "<b>The need for a Hakka-language Bible in Taiwan’s churches<br></b><span><br><br>聖經翻譯涉及語言的在地特性與差異。台灣的客家話大約可以分為四縣、海陸、大埔、饒平和詔安五種腔調,也與中國的客家話有所差異。無論是晚清與民初時期在中國出版的客語聖經,或是1924年為臺灣長老教會指派前往汕頭學習白話字的<span>鍾天枝牧師所帶回的《客語聖詩》,皆因爲兩地的用語、腔調或時空差異,而無法被台灣本地的客家教會所接受、使用。<br><br></span></span>直到戰後的1950年代,服務於屏東內埔教會的客籍牧師方廣生,體認到以白話字臺語聖經搭配客語翻譯傳福音的侷限,因此與臺灣基督長老教會北部的「客庄宣道會」合作,著手翻譯客語聖經篇章,整理字詞對照羅馬拼音書寫系統,並嘗試統一南北腔調差異。1960年聯合聖經公會成立「臺灣聖經公會」,首度組成客語聖經翻譯小組,期望在長老會宣教百週年(1965)出版客語新約聖經作為獻禮。<br><br><span>Bible translation involves the local characteristics and differences in language. Taiwan's Hakka dialect can be divided into five different accents: Sixian, Hailu, Dapu, Raoping, and Zhao’an<span>, and is distinct from the Hakka spoken in mainland China. The Hakka-language Bibles published in mainland China, whether the late-Ching and early-Ming edition or the <i>Hakka Hymnal</i> brought back by Presbyterian Pastor Chung </span>Tien-zhi sent to Shantou <span>in 1924 to learn the colloquial tongue, were not accepted or used by the Hakka churches in Taiwan due to differences in idioms, accents, or time period.<br><br></span></span>In 1950, while serving the parish in Neipu, Pingdong, Hakka Rev.&nbsp;Fang Guangsheng recognized the limitations of translating the Taiwanese Colloquial Bible into Hakka dialect in preaching the gospel, and worked with the Presbyterian Church of the northern Taiwan Hakka Presbyterian Mission to undertake the translation of a Hakka bible, organizing phrases that corresponded to the romanization system and attempted to integrate variations in northern and southern accents. In 1960, the United Bible Societies established the Bible Society of Taiwan to organize a Hakka-language bible translation team for the first time, with aims to publish the New Testament in Hakka-language as a tribute on the <span>centenary of the Presbyterian Mission (1965).</span><br>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 5, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "basic-9s6ilqez67": { "id": "basic-9s6ilqez67", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "7beb57c08b515940a395d1559e595523", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/33f98b54969c05d1d3b3c065e35e0ac9.jpg?itok=QrHvhywn", "level": "primary", "title": "《客話約翰福音書》1965年出版 Hakka-language version of The Gospel of John (1965)", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/33f98b54969c05d1d3b3c065e35e0ac9.jpg?itok=PnPBm5CJ", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/33f98b54969c05d1d3b3c065e35e0ac9.jpg?itok=pRvMlzPg", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/33f98b54969c05d1d3b3c065e35e0ac9.jpg?itok=Tz8TxLU3", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/33f98b54969c05d1d3b3c065e35e0ac9.jpg?itok=RguDkIo6", "mfid": "33f98b54969c05d1d3b3c065e35e0ac9", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "邱信惠", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "客語聖經的翻譯中斷與重啟", "desc": "<b>Stops and starts in the Hakka translation of the Bible<br></b><span><br><br>客語聖經翻譯以白話字聖經為底,並用羅馬字轉換為客語,漢字則採《和合本聖經》對照。1965年《客話約翰福音》率先出版,而後於1969年完成《新約》整本翻譯與審議,然而當時受限於國民黨政府推行「國語政策」、限制「方言」使用,更提倡注音拼音、禁止教會教授羅馬字,而教會內部也有腔調使用的爭議,種種因素令台灣《客語聖經》的出版延宕停滯。<br><br></span>1980年代客家族群除了透過社會運動提倡客家認同與母語保存意識,教會中的客家信徒與牧者也體認到「阿姆話」(母語)對福音傳遞和信仰實踐的重要性。1983年,以臺語傳道之牧者有感於臺語聖經自1933年巴克禮牧師出版後便再無編修,亟需一本符合當代臺語用語的新譯聖經,客語牧者也因此開始重啟十餘年前未竟的客語聖經翻譯工作。<br><br><span>The translation of the Hakka Bible was based on the Colloquial Bible, converted to Hakka-language through romanization, and corresponding with Chinese characters in the&nbsp;Holy&nbsp;Bible&nbsp;Chinese Union Version<span>. Published in 1965, The Gospel of John in Hakka<i> </i>was the first to be completed, and translation on the New Testament into Hakka<i> </i>was completed and edited in 1969. However, due to the government push to limit regional dialects and to speak Mandarin, as well as the promotion of using phonetic symbols, the use of romanization by churches was prohibited. This, as well as other factors including debates within the church on regional accents, delayed the publication of the Hakka-language Bible in Taiwan.<br><br></span></span>In addition to raising awareness on the Hakka identity and preservation of the Hakka language through social movements in the 1980s, Hakka parishioners and pastors in the churches also recognized the importance of the “mother tongue” in preaching the gospel and practicing faith. Realizing that the Taiwanese language bible had not been reedited since it was first published in 1933 by Rev. Barkley, Taiwanese pastors saw an urgent need for a new translated Bible in line with the contemporary Taiwanese language, and Hakka pastors also restart the Hakka-language translation of the bible that had be left unfinished more than a decade earlier.<br>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 6, "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "imgs-g7ssj1nr21": { "id": "imgs-g7ssj1nr21", "type": "imgs", "sortable": true, "multiObjs": [ { "oid": "77e1a2581f43f953c88b5b5ebc78f6d6", "title": "《客語聖經:新約㧯詩篇—現代臺灣客語譯本》1993年出版 Hakka Bible(1993)", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d.jpg?itok=78cmmH0A", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d.jpg?itok=eFseEOj3", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/627b8dfd32476158dc7c2a682777d34d.jpg?itok=vlVFcVfZ", "background": 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"https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/8d995ab1120fecd56ddeaaf613fb63bb.jpg?itok=U31gCbiQ", "mfid": "8d995ab1120fecd56ddeaaf613fb63bb", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/8d995ab1120fecd56ddeaaf613fb63bb.jpg?itok=cCU_LQov", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "賴德卿、邱曉玲", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false, "level": "primary" }, "title": "當代臺灣客語聖經出版", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "", "desc": "<b>Publication of the contemporary Taiwanese Hakka Bible<br></b><span><br><br>1985年,在多方的努力下,「台灣客語聖經翻譯委員會」成立,以台灣當代通行的客語文體和語法,以及當代聖經翻譯採用「與原文意義相符、明白易懂」的原則與表達方法進行聖經翻譯。<br><br>翻譯委員會依台灣使用人口最多的苗栗四縣腔為主要翻譯腔調,並採「漢羅對照」的編排方式,使讀者能清楚讀出客語讀音,並且採取符合時代的包容性用語,如在適當處將「兄弟」譯為「兄弟姐妹」。<br></span><br><span>After the combined effort of many parties, the Taiwan Hakka Bible Translation Committee<span> was established to begin translation on the Bible using the contemporary Taiwan Hakka grammar and form with the guidelines of \"clear, easy-understood, and consistent with the original text.”<br><br></span></span>The Translation Committee based the translation on accents of the Miaoli Sixian accent, used by the largest number of Hakka speakers in Taiwan, and used the Hanro romanization so that readers can clearly pronounce the Hakka words. A choice was also made to use contemporary inclusive language, such as “brothers and sisters” instead of “brothers” where appropriate.<br>" }, "text-ia1f14sqk0": { "id": "text-ia1f14sqk0", "type": "text", "sortable": true, "musicName": "無", "weight": 8, "desc": "<span>1985年,在多方的努力下,「台灣客語聖經翻譯委員會」成立,以台灣當代通行的客語文體和語法,以及當代聖經翻譯採用「與原文意義相符、明白易懂」的原則與表達方法進行聖經翻譯。<br><br>翻譯委員會依台灣使用人口最多的苗栗四縣腔為主要翻譯腔調,並採「漢羅對照」的編排方式,使讀者能清楚讀出客語讀音,並且採取符合時代的包容性用語,如在適當處將「兄弟」譯為「兄弟姐妹」。</span><br><br><br><br><br>", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "quote-p3dnsyskck": { "id": "quote-p3dnsyskck", "type": "quote", "sortable": true, "musicName": "無", "weight": 9, "desc": "<span>「借用國語或臺語⋯⋯結果是常常『害』人聽不懂,阻塞了信息的傳達。」<br>「說同樣的方言,就立刻有股親切感!因為那是他的母語,這種親切感在福音的傳遞與領受上,佔了絕對的優勢!」<br><br><b>彭德修牧師</b>(1986)《客宣双月刊》〈客家話聖經翻譯報告〉<div><br><i>\"Borrowing from Mandarin or Taiwanese&nbsp;dialect often results in becoming unintelligible and blocks the transfer of information.”</i><i>“There is an immediate sense of intimacy when speaking the same dialect, because that is their mother’s tongue. This sense of intimacy is an absolute advantage when preaching and receiving the gospel.”<br><br></i>- <b>Rev. T.H. Peng</b>, “Bible Translation Report” (1986<span>) in <i>Hakka Ministry Bimonthly.</i></span><i><br></i></div></span>", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "text-vucalzib5k": { "id": "text-vucalzib5k", "type": "text", "sortable": true, "musicName": "無", "weight": 10, "desc": "客語聖經的翻譯從過往以外籍傳教士為主、母語人士為輔,當代轉為以在地教徒、牧者擔任之母語翻譯員為主,從肯認本地文化與母語開始,將聖經內容轉化並融合客家文化與母語的使用習慣,成為能讓客家人感受到「阿姆話」親切感的聖經譯本。<br><br>Past translations of the Hakka Bible were primarily for the foreign missionaries, and secondarily for the native speakers. The contemporary shifted to the native speaking translator as the main focus, and begins from a recognition of the local culture and mother tongue in transforming the content of the Bible to integrate with Hakka culture and their habitual use of their native tongue to create a bible that imparts the intimacy of the “mother tongue” among the Hakka people.<br>", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "text-osm4beolsk": { "id": "text-osm4beolsk", "type": "text", "sortable": true, "musicName": "無", "weight": 11, "desc": "<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/a31376471fee95e42667c42599da1594#img-qsfednyoyp\">返回主展覽</a><br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/643165fdc080424294b96be6f007fec2#basic-j59dsq680q\">Return to the Main Exhibition</a>", "musicText": "", "musicURL": "" }, "thanks": { "id": "thanks", "type": "thanks", "sortable": false, "thanksList": { "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, 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