A New Style of Performance Art in Early 20th Century Myanmar

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展覽封面
aab4b640e548d13356d4dc94a602084f
展覽資料
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Another is a new generation of male&nbsp;<i>mìntha</i>&nbsp;performers and female&nbsp;<i>mìnthàmee</i>&nbsp;performers in lead roles who became trendsetters in major urban centers like Yangon and Mandalay. A third change is the influence of Western culture on Burmese song, dance, and theater. During this period, Yangon became a tour stop for foreign performance troupes, which facilitated cultural exchanges between Burmese and Western music and dance. In addition to temporarily constructed Western-style theaters, tea traders sponsoring the facilities also initiated a trend of commercialization by selling tickets to performances.<br></span><br><span>On the other hand, the feudal system of classifying court artists still held influence during the colonial period. Low-ranking artists who were unable to afford expensive costumes and props were limited to village theater,&nbsp;<i>yoke thè</i>, and variety troupes; or else resorted to touring towns and villages by ox-drawn wagons to perform during Buddhist and cultural festivals. In addition, the pursuit of pure, highly-technical auditory feasts by Burmese audiences led to a popularization of the purely instrumental&nbsp;<i>balar hsaìng</i>&nbsp;genre. These reveal diversified developments across Burmese theater, music and dance.&nbsp;</span><b><br></b>" }, "basic-9hd627jvnu": { "id": "basic-9hd627jvnu", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "38849824984b2475646bbf927a76a56d", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/7977f5879f41b0a6d5e924f658526cd2.jpg?itok=yAMleHTS", "level": "primary", "title": "明信片:知名劇場男伶Po Sein(1882-1954)", "desc": "D. A. Ahuja於二十世紀初發行的明信片", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/7977f5879f41b0a6d5e924f658526cd2.jpg?itok=aAfnxwFD", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/7977f5879f41b0a6d5e924f658526cd2.jpg?itok=zkPL7KS0", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/7977f5879f41b0a6d5e924f658526cd2.jpg?itok=rBwkI24s", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/7977f5879f41b0a6d5e924f658526cd2.jpg?itok=uU-VQsrP", "mfid": "7977f5879f41b0a6d5e924f658526cd2", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Superstar of Mìntha Theater: Po Sein", "desc": "<span>Unlike traditional court dances where female&nbsp;<i>mìnthàmee</i>&nbsp;performers took center stage, male&nbsp;<i>mìntha</i>&nbsp;performers were the stars of the stage (theater). The reason for this phenomenon lies in the secularization of new theater programs in the Yangon area that emphasized roles requiring song and dance performances by&nbsp;<i>mìntha.</i>&nbsp;Theater troupes sought a high standard for&nbsp;<i>mìntha</i>&nbsp;<span>performers who, in addition to possessing a good singing voice and stellar acting skills, had the requisite degree of physical attractiveness.<br></span></span><br><span><b>Po Sein</b>&nbsp;(1882-1954) was a legendary superstar in Burmese performing arts in the early 20th century. He headlined countless new dramas, and played a part in the innovation of traditional performing arts in Myanmar, such as the addition of an exotically-costumed female instrumental ensemble, and the recruitment of a renowned&nbsp;<i>a̱nyeint</i>&nbsp;troupe. These innovations were imitated by his competitors, and such diversified performances were subsequently referred to as&nbsp;<i>Po Sein Pwè</i>&nbsp;(Po Sien shows). He was also the first performer in Mandalay to sell tickets to performances.</span>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 2 }, "basic-vboik035lm": { "id": "basic-vboik035lm", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "bc96192779c8ccfa3a9c74b31443e25e", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/a97e8c2dfef5441e970de62b95080529.jpg?itok=ZSsCMdMs", "level": "primary", "title": "明信片:由Po Sein 扮演的惡棍(1903)", "desc": "D. A. Ahuja 發行的明信片封面照", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/a97e8c2dfef5441e970de62b95080529.jpg?itok=Xt_GO51d", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/a97e8c2dfef5441e970de62b95080529.jpg?itok=Efhw7XsN", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/a97e8c2dfef5441e970de62b95080529.jpg?itok=TaLel3AZ", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/a97e8c2dfef5441e970de62b95080529.jpg?itok=lOOOIuk9", "mfid": "a97e8c2dfef5441e970de62b95080529", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "Myanmar Historical Archive (Facebook)", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-相同方式分享", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "The Popularization of Secular New Dramas", "desc": "<div><div><div><div><div><div><div><div><span>In the over 300 works of new drama published in Yangon between 1875 and 1915, the number of secular new dramas gradually overtook court dramas based on Buddhist scripture, to become mainstream theater. The most famous trope among these new works involved a villain portrayed by Po Sein removing a fetus from his lover’s womb. The tragic plot was accompanied by rousing songs of lament and the gradual crescendo of&nbsp;<i>hsaìng</i>&nbsp;music, culminating on the thundering beats of a large drum that evoked an overwhelming emotional upheaval in the audience. This trope was so widely-recognized that the Indian postcard manufacturer D. A. Ahuja created postcards of on this eerie image, now a prized collector’s item among countless fans.</span><br></div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div><div><div><div><div><div><div><div></div></div></div></div></div></div></div>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 3 }, "basic-ieyxgie6wm": { "id": "basic-ieyxgie6wm", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "33acdeff5118e1e3d33f255d72795c92", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/f11fdab7b8ea128bcfeb85483bd1dd99.jpg?itok=QYM_n9Dz", "level": "primary", "title": "鄰里劇團", "desc": "《Mixed Bill》中的〈A Burmese Pwe〉劇照\n左:Paula Trueman (1897-1994) 飾演公主\n右:Blanche Talmud (1893-1990) 飾演王子\nBilly Rose Theatre Division,The New York Public Libraryfor the Performing Arts, Astor,Lenox and Tilden Foundations", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/f11fdab7b8ea128bcfeb85483bd1dd99.jpg?itok=lag4oF5r", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/f11fdab7b8ea128bcfeb85483bd1dd99.jpg?itok=zgNjPrGS", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/f11fdab7b8ea128bcfeb85483bd1dd99.jpg?itok=kG-n3WKd", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/f11fdab7b8ea128bcfeb85483bd1dd99.jpg?itok=s_f90Zyf", "mfid": "f11fdab7b8ea128bcfeb85483bd1dd99", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "紐約公共圖書館 The New York Public Library", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "fileLicence": "公眾領域標章(Public Domain Mark)", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Exchanges with Touring Theatrical Troupes from Abroad", "desc": "<span>The American theater troupe Neighborhood Playhouse made a stop in Myanmar on their world tour in 1923. In addition to participating in local rituals and performances, the troupe attended an&nbsp;<i>a̱nyeint</i>&nbsp;performance (<i>yen pwè</i><span>) by Po Sien. Troupe leader Alice Lewisohn (1883-1972) paid a visit to Po Sein. Lewisohn described how Po Sein wore traditional Burmese clothing, and was not particularly tall in stature. She felt that he did not alter the form and scale of the original script, but had inserted his own perspective and comedic element to infuse the specific material with a new significance by reinterpreting traditional epic roles in a comedic style.<br></span></span><br>In addition to Neighborhood Playhouse, the Denishawn Dancers also embarked on a 16-month tour of Asia from August 1925 to November 1926. In a letter home, troupe member Jane Sherman described the setting for the dance troupe’s performances in Yangon, the cultural exchanges between Myanmar and the West, and reflected on foreign culture.", "musicName": "無", "weight": 4 }, "basic-unt886a3p4": { "id": "basic-unt886a3p4", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "aca1d19608ac305072237fb56cdc9a7f", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/b1261c7c9efe3708f40a16bd71a9057f.jpg?itok=6Wzh12B8", "level": "primary", "title": "把喇塞恩(1895年)", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/b1261c7c9efe3708f40a16bd71a9057f.jpg?itok=ZsWb_VB6", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/b1261c7c9efe3708f40a16bd71a9057f.jpg?itok=W4MnRDwG", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/b1261c7c9efe3708f40a16bd71a9057f.jpg?itok=AMjcchYm", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/b1261c7c9efe3708f40a16bd71a9057f.jpg?itok=T-GsS-3v", "mfid": "b1261c7c9efe3708f40a16bd71a9057f", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "大英圖書館 The British Library", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-可用於本站提供的服務", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "The Ascendency of Instrumental Music", "desc": "Social unrest in abated in 1890s Myanmar, and the numbers of ritual celebrations and entertainment performances increased. Betwixt the songs and dances, audiences also began to pursue pure auditory pleasures unaccompanied by song or dance, which gave rise to the emergence of the pure instrumental form of&nbsp;<i>balar hsaìng</i>. At the same time,&nbsp;<i>pat wain</i>&nbsp;(drum circle) musicians were also able to depart from their function as accompaniment to singing and dancing, and to pursue elaborate performances of exquisite skill and became the center of attention.", "musicName": "無", "weight": 5 }, "basic-1br7cd16x3": { "id": "basic-1br7cd16x3", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "8d3405e3ac52f4e48028548deaa3459f", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/67b0d67df8530239a24ccad58c29b3c4.jpg?itok=Ic5fQ8fq", "level": "primary", "title": "把喇塞恩中央的圍鼓手(1895年)", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/67b0d67df8530239a24ccad58c29b3c4.jpg?itok=b35_6CHm", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/67b0d67df8530239a24ccad58c29b3c4.jpg?itok=SrYpDpXW", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/67b0d67df8530239a24ccad58c29b3c4.jpg?itok=sXkWkN06", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/67b0d67df8530239a24ccad58c29b3c4.jpg?itok=ykmYJEMv", "mfid": "67b0d67df8530239a24ccad58c29b3c4", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "Myanmar Historical Archive (Facebook)", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-可用於本站提供的服務", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "In the early 20th century, male&nbsp;<i>mìntha</i>&nbsp;superstars on the stage and female&nbsp;<i>mìnthàmee</i>&nbsp;superstars of dance rose in popularity in Myanmar. However, despite their consummate skills, instrumental musicians were still largely regarded as accompaniment in supporting roles in performances. However, the&nbsp;<i>pat wain</i>&nbsp;(drum circle) virtuoso Sein Beda (1882-1942) remained steadfast in his performance of court instrumental music. Myanmar musicologist Khin Zaw regarded Sein Beda as the Beethoven of Myanmar. His exceptional skills enabled him to create sounds using the&nbsp;<i>pat wain</i>&nbsp;(drum circle) that were as impeccably arranged and rounded and crisp as the plucking of the&nbsp;<i>saùng-gauk</i>&nbsp;(arched harp), conjuring in his audience an imagination of the resplendent palaces of yore.", "musicName": "無", "weight": 6 }, "basic-picz3s5zsj": { "id": "basic-picz3s5zsj", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "e5dc4eb1b43193fa507a8d3beb86787e", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/850425f5ae9d1404fb5809dfdb09177b.jpg?itok=sOEzW8TV", "level": "primary", "title": "西方手風琴加入緬甸阿佞樂舞", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/850425f5ae9d1404fb5809dfdb09177b.jpg?itok=msLTxv6_", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/850425f5ae9d1404fb5809dfdb09177b.jpg?itok=gc-XpRl9", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/850425f5ae9d1404fb5809dfdb09177b.jpg?itok=j7JWTC0o", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/850425f5ae9d1404fb5809dfdb09177b.jpg?itok=N2TMYqD0", "mfid": "850425f5ae9d1404fb5809dfdb09177b", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "Myanmar Historical Archive (Facebook)", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-可用於本站提供的服務", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Western Fusion in Contemporary Burmese Music", "desc": "<span>During the late British colonial period, the film industry entered into the lives of the Burmese. Early films were silent, and required accompaniment by a live orchestra to enhance the film’s auditory sense. It was commonplace to see traditional&nbsp;<i>hsaìng waìng</i>&nbsp;performing alongside western instrumentation including saxophone, clarinet, guitar, and drums.</span><span><br><div><br><span>By the 1970s, Burmese-Western fusion music became even more prevalent in dramatic&nbsp;<i><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/embed/remark/119810\" class=\"lightbox-link js-mfp-iframe\">zat pwè</a></i>&nbsp;performances, as well as in the&nbsp;<i>a̱nyeint&nbsp;</i><span><i>pwè</i>&nbsp;dance performances.</span></span></div></span>", "musicName": "無", "weight": 7 }, "text-aoqdi2e6lc": { "id": "text-aoqdi2e6lc", "type": "text", "sortable": true, "musicName": "無", "weight": 8, "desc": "<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/3b2e4df399f6b8f7eda2aaebf4466b48#imgs-kmjbld3n35\">Return to the Main Exhibition</a>" }, "thanks": { "id": "thanks", "type": "thanks", "sortable": false, "thanksList": { "大英圖書館 The British Library": { "rights": "大英圖書館 The British Library", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "obj": [ "4b8f0b85fbc01a9d08cd18a91f3d609a", "aca1d19608ac305072237fb56cdc9a7f" ], "objNum": 2 }, "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica": { "rights": "中研院民族所博物館 Museum of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "obj": [ "38849824984b2475646bbf927a76a56d" ], "objNum": 1 }, "Myanmar Historical Archive (Facebook)": { "rights": "Myanmar Historical Archive (Facebook)", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "obj": [ "bc96192779c8ccfa3a9c74b31443e25e", "8d3405e3ac52f4e48028548deaa3459f", "e5dc4eb1b43193fa507a8d3beb86787e" ], "objNum": 3 }, "紐約公共圖書館 The New York Public Library": { "rights": "紐約公共圖書館 The New York Public Library", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "obj": [ "33acdeff5118e1e3d33f255d72795c92" ], "objNum": 1 } }, "objList": { "4b8f0b85fbc01a9d08cd18a91f3d609a": { "oid": "4b8f0b85fbc01a9d08cd18a91f3d609a", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/aab4b640e548d13356d4dc94a602084f.jpg?itok=1C2UG8bF", "level": "bg", "title": "戲劇男伶(1895)", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/mcode/aab4b640e548d13356d4dc94a602084f.jpg?itok=ck47PJ0k", "thumbMediumURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/mcode/aab4b640e548d13356d4dc94a602084f.jpg?itok=glPgYvro", "thumbBigURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/mcode/aab4b640e548d13356d4dc94a602084f.jpg?itok=OQqlDBr4", "background": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1920/mcode/aab4b640e548d13356d4dc94a602084f.jpg?itok=KXSAYX8r", "mfid": "aab4b640e548d13356d4dc94a602084f", "musicURL": "", "musicName": "", "fileCreator": "Watts and Skeen", "rights": "大英圖書館 The British Library", "rightsLogo": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "fileLicence": "著作權利所有-可用於本站提供的服務", "fileDisableLink": "1", "fileOversize": false }, "38849824984b2475646bbf927a76a56d": { "oid": "38849824984b2475646bbf927a76a56d", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "https://openmuseum.tw/files/muse_portal/muse_styles/w1024/mcode/7977f5879f41b0a6d5e924f658526cd2.jpg?itok=yAMleHTS", "level": "primary", "title": "明信片:知名劇場男伶Po Sein(1882-1954)", "desc": "D. 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