<i><b></b></i>
展覽頁面呈現形式
縱式
策展者
章璿
鍾國芳
展覽封面
4436f1c97a92be133d1a0a47181ce6c1
展覽資料
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"fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "請輸入頁面說明", "weight": 2 }, "basic-xlxd4r17el": { "id": "basic-xlxd4r17el", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "d601f36ef3eb8b3448436874ec8b6091", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/36/34/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=hkKmXwCZ", "level": "primary", "title": "南島語族分布/南島語分布", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/36/34/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=BHLmptEW", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/36/34/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=9svtSTw-", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/36/34/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=kQM1Qk4T", "mfid": "ddf728b74797652b1fc700a162fc73fa", "fileCreator": "Christophe cagé", "rights": "維基百科", "rightsLogo": 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and round the World. Performed in His Majesty's ships the Resolution and Adventure, in the years 1772, 1773, 1774, and 1775.\"", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/image/AN00577897_001_l_0.jpg?itok=tRD-Ms5K", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_medium/public/image/AN00577897_001_l_0.jpg?itok=vPyzCUen", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_big/public/image/AN00577897_001_l_0.jpg?itok=tF_hsx_W", "mfid": "cd41b7d1753baffcd85fee7ce55619e4", "fileCreator": "威廉·霍奇斯 William Hodges", "rights": "British Museum", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "橫越太平洋的航者", "desc": "人類約於2百萬年前開始陸上長征,智人(現代人類)則於約6萬年前出走非洲,開始他們的遷徙旅程,並在至少5萬年前就抵達了現今的澳洲、新幾內亞一帶。隨後人群一波波的向北、向南,窮盡歐亞大陸,並靠著冰河時期的陸橋與簡單的船舟跨越短距的水域到達另一片陸地。<br><br>到了約5000年前,人類尚未踏足的地方僅剩太平洋上綿延數千公里的零星小島,而完成人類遷徙最終章的便是南島語族人。靠著高超的航海技術及特有的生活方式,這個海洋民族航越整個太平洋,在這些大小錯落的島嶼上發展出獨樹一格的南島文化。", "weight": 4 }, "basic-hplgd27br3": { "id": "basic-hplgd27br3", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "level": "primary", "oid": "954dee34c9f22a5ad44dc9c21d26e221", "title": "Boats of the Friendly Islands", "desc": "庫克船長第三次太平洋航行時的隨船畫師約翰.韋伯 John Webber 所繪,畫中描繪的為東加 (Friendly islands)的水手及典型的南島語族船舟。\n下方文字為:J. Webber R.A. fecit/Boats of the Friendly Islands./Vide Cooks last Voy. Vol II Bk. II Chap IV./Publish'd Augt. 1 1791 by J. Webber No.. 312. Oxford Street.", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/33/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=6eTF2tDB", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/33/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=ir6QoCI2", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/33/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=0_Ztncqw", "mfid": "3d9b1610cd47d137f671d075bfde125b", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/33/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=AaiTTWpE", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "約翰.韋伯 John Webber", "rights": "British Museum", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "先進的造船技術與精密的航海知識", "desc": "早在4000-5000年前,南島語則便有領先全世界的技術,打造出結構複雜的船隻,載領他們進行長距離的航程。最簡單的船隻形式為單一船身的獨木舟,最具特色的為船帆,通常設計為傾斜的<b>三角形或上部略為收攏彎曲的螯狀</b>,使得船隻在逆風、逆流的情況下皆能向東航行。南島語族更設計出特殊的<b>「舷外浮桿」(outrigger)</b>,即是在船舷外側加裝防止翻覆的樑架(如圖中左前方的船隻),或是將兩艘船平行連結,形成雙船身的形式(如圖中右後方的船隻)。在船身與舷外浮桿或是船身與船身之間還可以搭設置物平臺,以搭載更多人,亦可攜帶遠程航行所需的物品。<br><br>在遠航的旅程中,<b>領航員</b>是不可或缺的關鍵腳色,航海的知識並不是所有人能輕易通曉,只有經過特別挑選的人才能受訓成為領航員,授予所有機密的學問,而其地位也因此十分崇高,只有他們能夠帶領族人在汪洋中安然不迷失方向。<br>不若現代航海,定位與測距都有地圖與許多高科技的輔助工具,然而歷經豐厚的海上經驗,南島語族累積、發展出一套精準的航海知識,這是一套藏於天地自然之間的系統,透過星星、海鳥、湧浪、海上的氣味及顏色,便能在腦中繪製分毫不差的航海圖,領航員更時常終日不寐,觀測星象與天氣,牢記船行的軌跡。<br>", "weight": 5 }, "basic-fubliay4km": { "id": "basic-fubliay4km", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "08c8d274942b03920a3f7423b12b8efd", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/w1024/public/image/vanuatu_2005.jpg?itok=rRQGrzh8", "level": "primary", "title": "萬那杜發行之拉匹塔文化套裝郵票", "desc": "為2005年萬那杜發行的套裝郵票,以南島著名的拉匹塔文化(Lapita culture)為主題,描繪當時的人們生活的樣貌。摘自2011年出版的 \"Working Together in Vanuatu: Research Histories, Collaborations, Projects and Reflections\" 中第19章關於在萬那杜的人類學研究。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/image/vanuatu_2005.jpg?itok=txlWwbio", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_medium/public/image/vanuatu_2005.jpg?itok=DjibQ68j", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_big/public/image/vanuatu_2005.jpg?itok=CmgqcOI4", "mfid": "e4a1966bd763a5488be3985bd040634a", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "JSTOR", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-禁止改作", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "島上的日常", "desc": "<div>由2005年萬那杜官方發行的拉匹達文化郵票,我們得以一探早期太平洋南島語族先民的生活。<br></div><div>拉匹達遺址多在海岸地區,<b>人們群居並形成村落</b>,搭建干欄式房屋或茅草、木屋,<b>使用陶製及石製的器具</b>,也會生火煮食。當時的人們很<b>依賴海洋資源</b>,採貝、網魚,或是射魚維生。<b>農業也可能是主要的生產方式</b>,以種植根部作物和樹木作物為基礎,最重要的是芋頭、番薯、山藥、香蕉、麵包樹、構樹等,作為食物之外,植物也可用來製作日常生活用品,像是編織成容器或製作成穿戴的衣物;除此之外,也會<b>飼養豬,狗和雞等牲畜</b>。</div><div>這些拓殖者將人類的住地擴展到了整個太平洋,成功的關鍵就是<b>「地景轉移」</b>,他們會將這樣的生活模式一併攜帶複製到下一個居所。當南島語族人遷徙時,熟悉的工具、用品、食物,以及一些較快繁殖的動植物會一併打包上船,除了能夠應付險峻的海上生活,也讓他們在找到下一個島嶼家園時,可以快速的安身立命。<br><br><br><div><b><i>拉匹達文化</i></b><i>(Lapita culture)為太平洋地區的史前文化,根據目前出土的代表性陶器,這個文化約3千多年前在近大洋洲的俾斯麥群島乍然而現,隨後離開近大洋洲,向萬那杜等地遷徙,進入遠大洋洲,來到斐濟、東加、薩摩亞。拉匹達人被認為是現今美拉尼西亞與波里尼西亞人的祖先,這些拓殖者口中說的正是南島語。</i></div><div><i>近大洋洲早在數萬年前便有人居住,拉匹達文化與這些早期的文化有相當大的差異,且是這個地區首次出現使用陶器的文化,以複雜的紅土印紋陶器與貝殼和黑曜石製成的工具著名。如此成熟的文化不太可能在一夕之間形成,它是從何興起,又是如何傳遞,一直是難解的謎,許多考古學者認為拉匹達文化是南島語族所創,並隨之擴散、進駐太平洋,而許多關於南島語族遷徙途徑的研究亦多從拉匹達文化的考古、人類及遺傳學著手。<br><br></i><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://lapita.rchss.sinica.edu.tw/web/\">太平洋史前Lapita陶器線上數位資料庫</a><i><br></i></div></div>", "weight": 6 }, "theme-m5ffmdvruc": { "id": "theme-m5ffmdvruc", "type": "theme", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "8d802da732bd2601e96ae5891dc0d85d", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/34/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=XK8803sq", "level": "primary", "title": "Plate from \"Voyage to the Pacific Ocean\"/Tereoboo, King of Owyhee, bringing presents to Capt. Cook", "desc": "由庫克船長第一次太平洋航程的隨船畫師約翰·韋博 John Webber所繪,收錄在於1784年出版之\"Voyage to the Pacific Ocean\",描繪的為夏威夷地區南島語族人的船隻。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/34/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=h9W7ywwU", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/34/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=vcDZKYVY", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/34/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=NGP9ANSR", "mfid": "b650e855302b710a8080177211f47e00", "fileCreator": "約翰·韋博 John Webber", "rights": "British Museum", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "哪一條才是偉大的航道?", "desc": "南島語族在太平洋上的遷徙,是人類歷史上最後一波大規模的移民,這些人是從何而來,在近萬公里的汪洋中,他們依循的又是哪條路線呢?從語言學、考古學、民族學及人類遺傳學等不同的角度來探討,對南島語族遷徙的路徑和時間皆有不同的主張,其中最多人討論的像是以臺灣為起源的<b>快車說 (出臺灣說)</b>,以東南亞一帶為起源的<b>出東南亞說</b>、<b>慢船說</b>,或複雜的<b>糾纏地帶假說</b>及整合性的<b>航海廊道三源說</b>。", "weight": 7 }, "basic-rtgx8uc3yw": { "id": "basic-rtgx8uc3yw", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "20a07cba2edec76046d77ff8b4170607", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/w1024/public/image/human%20migration-01.png?itok=6biNak-p", "level": "primary", "title": "智人(現代人類)進入大洋洲/人類進入大洋洲", "desc": "約5.5-6.6萬年前之冰河時期,海平面降低,海峽寬度較小,智人跨越紅海,途經巴爾幹半島,進入歐亞大陸,並接續向東、向南遷徙。其中一部分的群體在距今約4-5.5萬年前經由現今的東南亞,渡海抵達莎湖陸棚(Sahul Shelf),即是現在的澳洲與新幾內亞,向東登陸俾斯麥群島,最遠到達索羅門群島,這些地方被歸為近大洋洲(Near Oceania),而這群人是現在澳洲、新幾內亞人與其他太平洋島民的祖先。\n另一波遷徙約在5千年約,由亞洲向東、往太平洋方向遷徙,約在距今千年前進入索羅門群島以東的太平洋玻里尼西亞地區,並在往後的1千多年間逐步擴張遷徙至太平洋上各島嶼,這些3千年前人類才踏足的地區被歸類為遠大洋洲(Remote Oceania)。\n \n根據 Rasmus Nielsen, Joshua M. Akey, Mattias Jakobsson, Jonathan K. Pritchard, Sarah Tishkoff & Eske Willerslev. Tracing the peopling of the world through genomics. Nature volume 541, pages 302–310 (19 January 2017) 所繪。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/image/human%20migration-01.png?itok=Y27R1t-w", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_medium/public/image/human%20migration-01.png?itok=H_2N7u3B", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_big/public/image/human%20migration-01.png?itok=fihz6dem", "mfid": "309a6082c9ff4663965ffcb327de0600", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "中央研究院生物多樣性研究中心 (BRMAS)", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "前進大洋洲", "desc": "現代人類(智人)自約5萬年前出走非洲,進入歐亞大陸,然後向全世界擴張,最遲約在4萬年前便到達了近大洋洲地區(澳洲、新幾內亞、索羅門群島一帶),這群人便是大洋洲早期的移民(綠色路線)。第二波大規模的大洋洲遷徙則是在數萬年之後的玻里尼西亞擴張,這波遷徙與拉匹達文化息息相關,即是南島語族的遷徙,現在一般認為這批南島語族移民是在5千年前從亞洲東南沿海一帶出發,向南到達菲律賓,再向東經由印尼、美拉尼西亞群島,約在3千年前,人群再向東,進入了無人所至的遠大洋洲玻里尼西亞地區,並約在距今1千年前將人類的版圖涵蓋至幾乎所有太平洋島嶼(紅色路線)。<br>", "weight": 8 }, "basic-sq7v8oi8vm": { "id": "basic-sq7v8oi8vm", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "ba938e6fd871fd2c48dd27c3ef5524a1", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/35/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=Llv8WRKJ", "level": "primary", "title": "由考古學及遺傳學推論南島語族在太平洋的遷徙路徑與年代/由人類基因體推論南島語族在太平洋的遷徙路徑與年代", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/35/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=fwMLUL5g", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/35/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=GD8WiIVG", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/35/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=t6aH27j3", "mfid": "bc86f06056e8ea3ed3f66f5cabf1c124", "fileCreator": "David Eccles", "rights": "維基百科", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "而此之中值得注意的爭議點便是,<b>3千年前,當這批人群到達早已有人居住的近大洋洲時,他們是自自顧自地向前航進,亦或是停下與早就在此居住的人們有過充分交流後,再繼續東航?</b>", "weight": 9 }, "basic-5sfcdffgkh": { "id": "basic-5sfcdffgkh", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "765d05666c0ecd955bb4bad06e8f4fb4", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/31/33/33/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=ND4kz201", "level": "primary", "title": "南島語族自臺灣擴散的路徑圖", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/31/33/33/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=NRs30POd", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/31/33/33/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=hR0yjoCm", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/31/33/33/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=rnlCcGr7", "mfid": "81f2205400f234d1693f96cf5ec2d200", "fileCreator": "Elizabeth A. Matisoo-Smith", "rights": "PNAS", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "版權所有", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "開往玻里尼西亞的臺灣特快車", "desc": "<span>這一系列的假說憑藉的多是語言與考古學上的證據,語言學家白樂思 (Robert\nBlust) 自1970年代開始研究南島語族的文化史與起源,從南島語系的演化支序圖來看,臺灣擁有最高的多樣性,極有可能為南島語的發源地,也因此提出<b>「臺灣原鄉論」</b>的說法。考古學家彼得.貝爾伍德 (Peter Bellwood) 則將考古資料整合語言學的研究成果,認為南島語族的遷徙是由北往南的農業擴張,並進一步提出<b>「出臺灣說」(Out of Taiwan hypothesis)</b><span>。<br></span></span>生物學家賈德.戴蒙 (Jared Diamond) 以此為基礎,於1988年提出了<b>「快車說」(Express train model)</b>,認為南島語族的農民祖先在距今8000至8500年前經由中國南方遷移到臺灣。有一部分的人群又在距今5500百年前離開臺灣朝南方遷移,距今約5000年前進入印尼,在接下來的2300年內橫越了約1萬公里的海洋,穿過菲律賓、印尼,約3500年前進入近大洋洲的美拉尼西亞島群,並在3200年前越過新幾內亞來到蘇門答臘群島,抵達遠大洋洲玻里尼西亞的西端,約在距今3000年前進入玻里尼西亞,南島語族人持續向東擴張,並同時向南及向北遷徙,在距今約1200年前抵達其分布北界的夏威夷、距今約1200到800年前到達東界的復活節島,最終在約730年前來到最南界的紐西蘭。<br>依照如此遷移的路徑及時間,南島語族在約2000年的時間內一路從臺灣橫跨整個太平洋,<b>中間沒有停頓,也沒有與當地原居民交流</b>,以當時有限的航海能力展現驚人的拓殖速度,就像一部開往玻里尼西亞的特快列車。<br>", "weight": 10 }, "basic-j9szmgp6ba": { "id": "basic-j9szmgp6ba", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "cd5455350d6f63aa5dd705a1e5643f2a", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/35/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=7Jpp5Kw9", "level": "primary", "title": "由Y染色體所推論的南島語族群分布及遷徙路徑", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/35/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=mmBL6RKw", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/35/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=ju0fByd6", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/35/38/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=VoY2w603", "mfid": "58f8192ac142700e72073b02e24beb9b", "fileCreator": "Hui Li,Bo Wen,Shu-Juo Chen,Bing Su,Patcharin Pramoonjago,Yangfan Liu,Shangling Pan,Zhendong Qin,Wenhong Liu,Xu Cheng,Ningning Yang,Xin Li,Dinhbinh Tran,Daru Lu,Mu-Tsu Hsu,Ranjan Deka,Sangkot Marzuki,Chia-Chen Tan,Li Jin", "rights": "BMC Evolutionary Biology", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "駛離東南亞的慢船", "desc": "但由語言及考古的證據,另一派學者則提出<b>「出東南亞說」(Out of Southeast Asian hypothesis)&nbsp;</b>,這個假說認為島嶼東南亞一帶對於南島語族的歷史影響遠比快車說來的要深遠,他們是一群以海洋資源為生的海島居民,在開始東遷以前,<b>早在菲律賓南部和印尼東部一帶演化形成存在已久的文化</b><b>,</b><b>最遠包括東南亞、臺</b><b>灣、華南在內的大東亞範圍</b>,之後才向東擴張。<br><br>史蒂芬.奧本海默&nbsp; Stephen Oppenheimer 則根據遺傳基因研究和考古資料首次提出<b>慢船說 (Slow boat model) </b>認為南島語族<b>起源於印尼或其附近的島嶼,並在進入大洋洲之前,與近大洋洲的居民有過充分交流</b>。奧本海默認為從人類的骨骼和齒型特徵可看出玻里尼西亞人和臺灣原住民之間有相當大的差異,但是和東南亞以及印尼附近島群的原住民非常接近。另外根據遺傳學的研究,大洋洲族群的Y染色體顯示玻里尼西亞人的祖先源於亞洲,但與美拉尼西亞人已有了充分的混血;另外,大洋洲族群的粒線體單倍群中廣泛出現的「玻里尼西亞序列」(Polynesian motif) 在玻里尼西亞南島語族人中出現的頻率十分地高,幾乎是特有於太平洋的單倍群,亦不曾在菲律賓及臺灣的族群發現,這表示他們的遷移不若快車說所認為的,自臺灣出發以很快的速度遷移到玻里尼西亞,而是在一個緩慢遷移的過程中,與當地居民有充分的交流後,演化出獨有的單倍群,再向大洋洲遷徙。<br><br>相較於以上論點有著清楚的起源或遷徙路徑,人類學家約翰.泰瑞 (John Terrell) 提出的是<b>「糾纏地帶假說」 (Entangled bank hypothesis)</b>,或也稱俾斯麥群島原住民論 (Bismarck archipelago indigenous inhabitant scenario,BAII),他認為並不需要特定定義哪一批大規模移民帶動南島語族的遷徙,這就是近大洋洲當地原族群間交流、融合後自然的發展。<br>", "weight": 11 }, "basic-vx7eoyd32r": { "id": "basic-vx7eoyd32r", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "b16f61b679b322b1d8e73ecbd6d0e178", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/38/33/33/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=UNjd6qYG", "level": "primary", "title": "拉匹塔文化的分布", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/38/33/33/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=SdVx_ox2", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/38/33/33/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=ozJZxiDh", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/38/33/33/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=xuQ3Bllv", "mfid": "60503f4ed739f4c09bf2a626fa92d5dd", "fileCreator": "Christophe cagé", "rights": "維基百科", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "Triple I-南島語族拉匹塔文化", "desc": "另一個整合型的假說則同樣認為臺灣為南島語族起源,為人學家羅傑.格林 (Roger Green)提出的<b>航海廊道三源說 (Voyaging Corridor Triple-I)</b>。這個理論強調南島語族擴散的複雜性,以代表南島語族的<b>拉匹塔文化&nbsp;(Lapita)</b>切入,探討其形成與發展。根據目前出土的代表性陶器,拉匹塔文化遺址主要分布在近大洋洲的俾斯麥群島、萬那杜,一直到遠大洋洲的斐濟、東加、薩摩亞一帶(如上圖紅色區域)。航海廊道三源說認為是南島語族的<b>入侵 (Intrusions)</b>&nbsp;與美拉尼西亞原住民在地資源與技術的<b>整合 (Integration),</b>才在在近大洋洲<b>創新 (Innovation)</b>&nbsp;形成了拉匹達文化,奠定南島語族成功拓殖遠大洋洲的基礎,並非像坐著快車一般,故又稱為&nbsp;<b>Triple I model</b>。不過格林提出的遷徙途徑與快車說幾乎一致,重要的是在過程中有數次停頓,尤其在6000到3500年前間於印尼和俾斯麥群島、索羅門群島間一直進行著來回的航行和交流。", "weight": 12 }, "theme-q3uh29jcql": { "id": "theme-q3uh29jcql", "type": "theme", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "34f7f9727f743a78a20d2ed770cba88a", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/35/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=gVbme2gW", "level": "primary", "title": "Papuan Men in Guinea in their Canoes hunting Wild Hogs", "desc": "途中描繪巴布亞新幾內亞人乘坐有舷外浮桿的獨木舟,獵捕逃入水中的野豬,船上亦可見捕魚的工具,還有陪伴漁獵的狗,畫面後方有另一艘較大型、具船帆的船隻。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/35/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=lliipap1", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/35/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=gntwnEA-", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/35/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=ja0zqU9o", "mfid": "243842fcd93cf5ef8769575515770362", "fileCreator": "", "rights": "British Museum", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "共生物種告訴我們的事", "desc": "除了從語言、考古、人類遺傳學來探討南島語族的遷徙,1994年人類學家伊莉莎白‧馬諦索史密斯&nbsp;Elizabeth Matisoo-Smith提出了<b>「共生物種」(commensal species)</b> 的概念。人類生活在自然之中,其對食、衣、住、行、育、樂等需求,以及自身文明、文化的發展無形之間也慢慢改變了那些與生活關係密切的動、植的自然地理分布和遺傳結構。<br><br>南島語族拓殖成功的關鍵為地景轉移,他們遷移時會攜帶整套的<b>「農業包裹」(agriculture package)</b>,打包所有食、衣、文化所需的原料,如豬、雞、老鼠、麵包樹、芋頭、地瓜等。這些動植物並非原來就分布於該地,太平洋地區約有70種植物並非當地的原生種,且本身並不具有長距離涉水移動的能力,皆是藉由南島語族的遷徙而傳播過去的,南島先民的生存與文化傳承產生緊密的共生關係,所以<b>研究這些物種的族群結構,或許便能夠推論影響他們的南島語族人當初是如何活動的。<br></b><b><br></b><br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://www.pnas.org/content/101/24/9167\">緬甸小鼠的研究支持 T</a><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://www.pnas.org/content/101/24/9167\">riple I假說</a><br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://science.sciencemag.org/content/323/5913/527\">為幽門桿菌的研究支持出臺灣說</a><br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://www.pnas.org/content/104/12/4834\">太平洋豬源自中南半島</a><br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039171\">雞骨化石顯示南島語族在1千年前</a><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039171\">\n\n已橫</a><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039171\">越太平洋</a><br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.3732/ajb.91.5.760\">大洋洲麵包樹的起源交雜古代及現代人類的移動</a><br><br>這些關於共生物種的親緣地理研究,揭開了南島語族拓殖與往返島嶼間的複雜歷史,有時能清楚的支持某個論點,有時卻更加點出了南島語族遷徙這個議題的盤根錯節。<br>", "weight": 13 }, "theme-wym134dm30": { "id": "theme-wym134dm30", "type": "theme", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "level": "primary", "oid": "d6ff6d9c89d6e868ef6b47d421fdb6ed", "title": "斐濟_樹皮布製作-敲打", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/31/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=N_hxtS2O", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/31/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=XV8sOAcC", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/31/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=P_nJMvXk", "mfid": "d1aa71c7635e6b7a69114ad23af5f0af", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/31/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=3iimRv9Z", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "李宜軒", "rights": "李宜軒", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "從「衣」出發", "desc": "樹皮布對於主要分布於大洋洲南太平洋島嶼的南島語族而言,是相當重要的物質文化,是日常生活的基本所需,可用於衣著、家居布置、打扮裝飾及藝術創作,而在儀式慶典中,樹皮布更扮演著不可或缺的腳色。至今,仍有少數太平洋島嶼以精湛的樹皮布工藝聞名。<br>製作樹皮布的主要原料便是構樹,也有使用麵包樹或其他桑科榕屬植物製作,不過以構樹製作的樹皮布為大宗,品質也最佳,所以,構樹也是南島語族的農業包裹中必不可少的植物。<br><br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/4c6df6672d9446cad5b03faafe99ed63\">有構厲害|打樹成衣</a><br>", "weight": 14 }, "basic-nt586bla79": { "id": "basic-nt586bla79", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "level": "primary", "oid": "e64db420a1accd8633f50e9af7f1bcb8", "title": "構樹葉", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/31/38/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=4OQkVWJJ", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/31/38/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=5C0hFmq6", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/31/38/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=68fgL-j2", "mfid": "b109b590ca3d34762621ad434c459587", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/31/38/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=y9VqtBJb", "fileType": "image", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "構樹與南島語族的遷徙", "desc": "構樹 <i>Broussonetia papyrifera</i>&nbsp;(L.) L'Her. ex Vent.,又名構、鹿仔樹、楮、榖、谷、谷桑、楮桑<br><br>在所有遠大洋洲南島語族栽種或畜養的「共生物種」中,構樹是唯一原生地在東亞、中南半島的物種,其原生的分布範圍足以做為檢測各個南島起源地假說的共生物種。<br>根據文獻記載,在近代文化傳入大洋洲島嶼之前,南島語族人們已在環太平洋遍植構樹,他們以無性繁殖栽種,專用以製作樹皮布。雖然現在仍有太平洋島嶼保留著製作樹皮布的傳統,但隨著紡織技術的引入,樹皮布已不再是生活中不可或缺的元素,樹皮布文化在許多地區已不復見,卻也正因如此,加上太平洋地區並沒有構樹的近緣植物,排除了物種之間雜交的可能,構樹十分有可能保持古老的遷徙印記。<br>", "weight": 15 }, "basic-c494xam6sb": { "id": "basic-c494xam6sb", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "9eb9437c13049ec9d62c3c4206e44cd9", "fileType": "video", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/muse_download/7d35287635b944b486aabcff35c353ae", "level": "primary", "title": "植物學家的人類學之旅_如何證明出臺灣說", "desc": "如何利用構樹DNA證明南島語族遷徙的出臺灣說\n\n中央研究院生物多樣性研究中心鍾國芳副研究員於107/06/01受科技部與科博館之邀,擔任【週末Let's go!分享大師視野】系列科普講座演講人,分享其與團隊自2008年來耕耘10年的構樹研究。\n\n演講訊息:【週末Let's go!分享大師視野】粉絲頁 https://www.facebook.com/go.masterview/\n完整演講:知識大講堂 http://knowledge.colife.org.tw/one_video/index.aspx?sid=9815", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/33/34/ascdc_muse_cover.jpg?itok=_0i_Xgqq", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/33/34/ascdc_muse_cover.jpg?itok=Hqpj_s4J", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/33/34/ascdc_muse_cover.jpg?itok=VaWXFr31", "mfid": "7d35287635b944b486aabcff35c353ae", "fileCreator": "週末Let's go!分享大師視野團隊", "rights": "週末Let's go!分享大師視野團隊", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-禁止改作", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "構樹DNA如何能支持南島語族出臺灣說", "desc": "中研院生物多樣性研究中心<b>鍾國芳副研究員</b>受到國立臺灣史前文化博物館南島文化與樹皮布研究者<b>張至善博士</b>的邀約,從2008年起開始了構樹的研究,同時發現在太平洋另一端的智利人類學家&nbsp;<b>Andrea Seelenfreund 博士</b>與 生物學家&nbsp;<b>Daniela Seelenfreund 博士</b>也正埋首鑽研同個議題,這支跨領域、跨國籍的團隊於是展開了長達10年的太平洋構樹之旅。<br><br><span>關於構樹,我們想要知道的是<br>●<b>太平洋構樹是否起源於臺灣?</b><br></span><b>●太平洋構樹是否為無性繁殖-&nbsp;人類引入?</b><br><b>●太平洋構樹是否為古代引入?</b><br><b>●太平洋構樹的傳播路徑是否\n\n與人類學推論一致?</b><br><br><br><br>那麼,首先要了解的是DNA序列如何記載著物種的歷史", "weight": 16 }, "theme-s8ridnxhq2": { "id": "theme-s8ridnxhq2", "type": "theme", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "fee668bb68c926abd48c42548dc8edc5", "fileType": "video", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/muse_download/81d9715d25c1639eb66ff32e470279da", "level": "primary", "title": "植物學家的人類學之旅_DNA的複製與基因單型/\t植物學家的人類學之旅_DNA的複製與基因單型", "desc": "DNA突變造成許多基因單型 (haplotype),經演化學上特定的演算法分析,各基因單型間的關係可以網狀圖來表示。\n\n中央研究院生物多樣性研究中心鍾國芳副研究員於107/06/01受科技部與科博館之邀,擔任【週末Let's go!分享大師視野】系列科普講座演講人,分享其與團隊自2008年來耕耘10年的構樹研究。\n\n演講訊息:【週末Let's go!分享大師視野】粉絲頁 https://www.facebook.com/go.masterview/\n完整演講:知識大講堂 http://knowledge.colife.org.tw/one_video/index.aspx?sid=9815", "thumbURI": 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"http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/36/31/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=f54RrDco", "level": "primary", "title": "由基因樹到基因單型網狀圖", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/36/31/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=p7Z-mRn0", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/36/31/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=mvXsg5Ya", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/36/31/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=2tUAWO0D", "mfid": "7cf9b25cb66ff41841ba257edc456bd4", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "由基因樹到基因單型網狀圖", "desc": "若能得知來自各地構樹的基因單型 (haplotype) ,並將其之間的親緣關係透過親緣分析,化約成網狀圖,我們便能得知藏在構樹DNA中的歷史訊息。", "weight": 18 }, 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"desc": "研究團隊來到文獻中提到種植構樹的地點。", "weight": 47 }, "basic-xluxf06g2w": { "id": "basic-xluxf06g2w", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "f839c947442d2abbd1976ec694254722", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/38/30/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=9xwLBCXb", "level": "primary", "title": "日本田野調查", "desc": "鍾國芳副研究員於2018年8月赴日本拜放樹皮布工藝師與採集構樹。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/38/30/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=mF8aWb6-", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/38/30/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=u1aBbSyg", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/38/30/39/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=7UiOfG8l", "mfid": "28ffb5acb2f1c514704cf7557789aa54", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": 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"basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "4d8233d768c86f04fce29d373fd2e36b", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/31/39/31/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=3ZQ2D2x6", "level": "primary", "title": "構樹", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/31/39/31/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=Df9hZVmS", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/31/39/31/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=jlSY2TDj", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/31/39/31/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=Z_a6WXXu", "mfid": "847eda4fed6b8d94673aefbed6a9ac9e", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-01.png?itok=DszBk5va", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "研究團隊更是在臺灣全島都留下了這樣辛苦採集構樹的身影,進行田野採集時,條件時常是非常嚴苛的,有時需要去到環境較為落後的地區,花光是到達該地便十分困難,還要擔心在野外調查時的安危;有時語言無法相通,又沒有足夠的相關文獻,讓採集毫無頭緒。團隊成員們耗費許多心力規劃、聯絡,竭盡所能的運用可得的資源,在橫跨將近1萬公里的採集範圍中,<b>總計包含了604個構樹樣本</b>。", "weight": 60 }, "basic-0qzniwj8ug": { "id": "basic-0qzniwj8ug", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "afae2b85c862091c7a9e59586c3dca94", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/36/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=0Yn4uYLw", "level": "primary", "title": "構樹的葉綠體基因組", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/36/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=K9FTeAGX", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/36/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=Hyb-tYb9", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/36/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=SbRcSNnA", "mfid": "517831b18e9b76ff8e45754d819c7509", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "版權所有", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "分子標記-構樹葉綠體基因組", "desc": "<span>要分析構樹的親緣地理,首先得在眾多的分子標記中,找出最適合構樹的那個,才能得到最佳的解析度。在選擇不同的基因片段時,需要考慮物種、樣本數、研究尺度以及實驗可行性等各式不同因素,經過多次的測試,終於發現葉綠體中<b>&nbsp;</b><i><b>ndh</b></i><b>F-</b><i><b>rpl</b></i><b>32&nbsp;</b></span><b>基因間隔區 (intergenic spacer) </b>(綠色框框處)能夠提供足夠的遺傳訊息。", "weight": 61 }, "basic-apl11omkxz": { "id": "basic-apl11omkxz", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "c60e52f5b63ff95a546f7978218b86cf", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/33/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=6Qtxioqj", "level": "primary", "title": "構樹葉綠體 ndhF-rpl32 基因單倍型網狀圖/構樹葉綠體 ndhF-rpl32 基因單倍型網狀圖", "desc": "各基因單型 (haplotype) 以不同色系表示,並標上編號1-48,跨號中的數字為樣本數,圓圈的大小與樣本數成比例,圓圈越大表示攜有該基因單型的樣本越多,小於10的樣本數未標示。出現在臺灣的基因單型以虛線表示,方形則表示該基因單型為特有基因單型 (unique haplotype),僅出現在特定地理區。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/33/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=oxaAY8LG", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/33/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=BhNORF4E", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/33/36/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=dG1jIrVy", "mfid": "5c1aad1651abde8c52fb143239c9d45b", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "構樹葉綠體 <i>ndh</i>F-<i>rpl</i>32 基因單型網狀圖", "desc": "<div>604個構樹樣本中,一共找到了<b>48個基因單型</b>,並將他們之間的關係畫成網狀圖,一個圓圈 (或方形) 即為一個基因單型,用不同顏色區別,並在內標示編號,圓圈的大小與樣本數成正比,實際數字標示於括號內,小於10的樣本數未標示。48個基因單型中,<b>出現於臺灣的有19個</b>,以虛線標出。</div>", "weight": 62 }, "basic-e7j702kvhc": { "id": "basic-e7j702kvhc", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "5c24b1aa6b5afa291be1bfebaf272937", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/33/31/35/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=s4pTGQCm", "level": "primary", "title": "構樹基因單倍型的地理分布", "desc": "將不同的基因單型依照分布地區著色;日本:淡橘色,中國:黃色,臺灣:綠色,菲律賓:紫色,印尼:深藍色,近大洋洲:淺藍色,遠大洋洲:橘紅色。\n由圖中可以看出,臺灣、中國與中南半島有絕大多數的基因單倍型,爲構樹遺傳多樣性中心,極有可能為構樹的原生地。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/33/31/35/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=DWNnlLGe", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/33/31/35/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=XVkZ5QLN", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/33/31/35/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=hZXB6B3h", "mfid": "2e2c17e3f98ff66a78d9492bd215e47b", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "版權所有", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "構樹的原生地", "desc": "若將網狀圖依照各基因單型分布的地理區重新上色,可以發現呈現最多顏色為的為<b>黃色(中國)、綠色(臺灣)及深藍色(中南半島)</b>,分別帶有27、19和5個基因單型。基因多樣性較高的區域,最接近族群散佈的起點,由此可以確定,<b>臺灣、中國與中南半島爲構樹遺傳多樣性中心,是構樹的原生地</b>。<br><br><br>", "weight": 63 }, "basic-46ekd1rfzb": { "id": "basic-46ekd1rfzb", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "5ff8afc92e5809c20827194b21901b42", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/w1024/public/image/network_map-01_1.png?itok=aoi449Jx", "level": "primary", "title": "構樹葉綠體 ndhF-rpl32 基因單倍型分布及網狀圖/構樹葉綠體 ndhF-rpl32 基因單倍型分布及網狀圖", "desc": "將各基因單型 (haplotype) 以不同色系表示,並標上編號1-48,圖中可見各基因單型於地理上的分布以及網狀圖。\n在地圖上以圓餅圖標示不同基因單型於同一地理區所佔的比例,圓餅圖的大小對應該地的樣本數。在網狀圖中各基因單型的編號標示於圓圈內,跨號中的數字為樣本數,圓圈的大小與樣本數成比例,圓圈越大表示攜有該基因單型的樣本越多,小於10的樣本數未標示。出現在臺灣的基因單型以虛線表示,方形則表示該基因單型為特有基因單型 (unique haplotype),僅出現在特定地理區。太平洋地區紅圈內填黑色代表標本樣本。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/image/network_map-01_1.png?itok=EyV21xBa", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_medium/public/image/network_map-01_1.png?itok=1fDwpDC3", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_big/public/image/network_map-01_1.png?itok=JO94NdmT", "mfid": "af77ee210df368c42d87a6ff61745314", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "太平洋構樹如何傳播", "desc": "進一步將基因單型依其分布繪於地圖上,再對照網狀圖,當中的脈絡就更加分明。<br><br>首先可以發現的是,臺灣雖然面積狹小,分佈在臺灣的構樹卻有非常高的單型多樣性,而且構樹的族群在北部(綠色系)、中南部(紅色系)與東部 (藍色系)的單倍型屬於不同演化支序,顏色在地圖上的呈現更可以看出明顯的分群;<b>顯著的親緣地理結構暗示著,構樹雖然是常見植物,但其自然傳播力有一定的局限性,更遑論越洋傳播。<br></b><br><b>出南臺灣</b><br>而與原生地相比,<b>太平洋上的基因多樣性則明顯低落,在蘇拉威西、新幾內亞及遠大洋洲島嶼上,絕大多數的構樹均攜帶紅色編號17的基因單型(cp-17),而除了大洋洲外,cp-17僅分布在臺灣南部</b>。cp-17位於一個臺灣特有的基因單型群的最末端,即網狀圖中紅色系的分支,由遺傳分析判斷,一定是由分布在臺灣南部的橘色cp-9和紫紅色cp-16演變而來,而極低的多樣性同時也是<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%81%97%E4%BC%A0%E6%BC%82%E5%8F%98#%E7%A7%8D%E7%BE%A4%E7%93%B6%E9%A2%88\">瓶頸效應(bottleneck effect)</a>與<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%81%97%E4%BC%A0%E6%BC%82%E5%8F%98#%E7%A7%8D%E7%BE%A4%E7%93%B6%E9%A2%88\">建立者</a><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%81%97%E4%BC%A0%E6%BC%82%E5%8F%98#%E7%A7%8D%E7%BE%A4%E7%93%B6%E9%A2%88\">效應(founder effect)的信號</a>,表示這些遠大洋洲帶有cp-17的構樹最有可能是被帶出臺灣至遠大洋洲的共生物種,cp-17在臺灣與大洋洲間的不連續分布無疑證明了<b>臺灣是「太平洋構樹」的原鄉</b>,如此看來,太平洋構樹的親緣地理與臺灣是南島語族原鄉的<b>「出臺灣說」</b>十分吻合。<br>", "weight": 64 }, "basic-tq1wnrdwj5": { "id": "basic-tq1wnrdwj5", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "55ad0c8ceed317a0e49edcf81e6b7266", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/38/33/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=4kx2Dut2", "level": "primary", "title": "福建至華中及臺灣北部地區的基因單型", "desc": "福建至華中一帶最常見的單倍型 cp-1亦為北臺灣構樹主要攜帶的基因單型。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/38/33/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=kPHcUhl_", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/38/33/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=oU-_lKYA", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/38/33/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=vpN3BIjX", "mfid": "413dbb81bd5d8bacb3deacf453994f8b", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "出南中國、入北臺灣", "desc": "<b>北臺灣單型多樣性較低,幾乎所有的構樹都攜帶綠色編號1號的基因單型(</b><b>cp-1)</b><b>或</b><b>cp-1</b><b>衍生的單型,而</b><b>cp-1</b><b>是福建至華中一代最常見的單型</b>。根據古地質孢粉報告與考古證據,帶有cp-1的構樹或許有可能是「出南中國」由福建被帶入北臺灣。但由於現在中國南方已無說南島語系的民族,我們也不知道「南島語系」最早的發源地是在「臺灣」還是「南中國」,因此只能推論<b>北臺灣攜帶cp-1的構樹有可能是「南島語系先祖」由中國南方帶到北臺灣</b>。", "weight": 65 }, "basic-iweeikwot6": { "id": "basic-iweeikwot6", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "a536f958702f8835bf5d1f00d89452b4", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/w1024/public/image/PNG%20map-01.png?itok=NMcCwuHE", "level": "primary", "title": "巴布亞新幾內亞地區的基因單型", "desc": "巴布亞新幾內亞的樣本中,一株帶有cp-17、兩株帶有cp-34。\ncp-34 是廣東至中南半島最常見的基因單型,這兩個帶cp-34的樣本或許有可能是源於中南半島。在新幾內亞山區同時發現來自臺灣 (cp-17) 與中南半島的基因單型,似乎與 Triple I 假說的論點所能推論的基因單型分布結果一致。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/image/PNG%20map-01.png?itok=wgOSENA0", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_medium/public/image/PNG%20map-01.png?itok=DpPvOBmY", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/thumbnail_big/public/image/PNG%20map-01.png?itok=U4Pzh8oL", "mfid": "ca9393a8b89035007747669ed30ba9ac", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-04.png?itok=gq-PTcKL", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "新幾內亞的構樹", "desc": "而新幾內亞的構樹似乎也藏著有趣的訊息。<br>來自新幾內亞的樣本中,<b>一株帶有cp-17單型、兩株帶有cp-34單型</b>。cp-34 是廣東至中南半島最常見的基因單型,這兩個帶cp-34的樣本或許有可能是源於中南半島。由於新幾內亞內陸是第一波來到近大洋洲的巴布亞人的居住地,並非南島語族的居住地,在新幾內亞山區同時發現來自臺灣與中南半島的基因單型,似乎與<b>航海廊道三源說</b>的論點十分接近,暗示著新舊往來的人群曾在此處有過充分交流。", "weight": 66 }, "basic-qnjtd5jxuj": { "id": "basic-qnjtd5jxuj", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "1d390a5c88e01f9ba22e332c267dc7c9", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/39/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=d4RXnapc", "level": "primary", "title": "東加_島上栽植的構樹", "desc": "栽植用於製作樹皮布的構樹,通常會受到悉心照料,除去多餘的側枝,確保樹幹筆直無節,且樹皮完整無孔洞", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/39/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=9BgGhOL5", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/39/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=nkpDCRYV", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/39/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=q6YO0Ch8", "mfid": "b63c1c3746baa5fc251816601e144c7e", "fileCreator": "李宜軒", "rights": "李宜軒", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "太平洋島上的「構樹田」", "desc": "雖然從基因單型的遺傳分析可以推論太平洋構樹應該是由臺灣傳入,但要如何證明構樹在太平洋的傳播真的是人類活動所致、而非自然散播呢?<br><br>由構樹在臺灣呈現的顯著遺傳結構我們已知這種植物<b>不太可能靠自身的力量進行長距離的傳播</b>,更別說要橫越廣大的水域,到達一個個的島嶼。<br>而根據文獻,太平洋構樹全賴南島語族栽種繁殖,在18世紀橫渡太平洋的航海日誌中,英國庫克船長 (Captain&nbsp;James Cook) 亦清楚記載,在遠大洋洲島民藉由樹根萌櫱扦插,<b>以無性繁殖的方式栽植構樹</b>。構樹在臺灣隨處可見,常在荒地中恣意生長,但大洋洲的熱帶環境卻讓構樹難以適應,需要人工照顧,研究團隊在太平洋地區進行田野調查時,發現當地的構樹多是由島民特意栽種,並細心養護。<br>", "weight": 67 }, "basic-dwb7u27l2e": { "id": "basic-dwb7u27l2e", "type": "basic", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "6d36f7c0d4b96e405ce67880a9148029", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/36/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=u9Dla6fV", "level": "primary", "title": "構樹的性別在原生地、近大洋洲與遠大洋洲的分布", "desc": "採集自各地構樹樣本的雌雄比例,圖中紅色表示雌性,藍色為雄性;圓餅圖的大小與樣本數成正比。可以明顯看出太平洋地區的構樹多為雌性。", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/36/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=enW1m2EV", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/36/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=zmQJ_6LP", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/36/34/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=WdqwK9IH", "mfid": "83765eae7ca55f9179cb3286c18931d2", "fileCreator": "Johany Peñailillo,Gabriela Olivares,Ximena Moncada,Claudia Payacán,Chi-Shan Chang,Kuo-Fang Chung,Peter J. Matthews,Andrea Seelenfreund,Daniela Seelenfreund", "rights": "PLOS one", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-03.png?itok=h0rkcAOw", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "太平洋構樹的主要用途為製作樹皮布,植株在長至3-5公尺時便會被採收,根本來不及成熟繁殖,許多太平洋島民甚至沒有看過構樹開花結果的樣子。且構樹是雌雄異株的植物,兩個性別的個體需要同時存在才能進行有性繁殖,目前的文獻中,幾乎沒有在太平洋地區採集到雄株的紀錄,因此無性繁殖才會成了此區構樹的生殖方式。<br>2016年,<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161148\">智利團隊根據分子標記的分析</a>,證明太平洋構樹絕大多數都是<b>雌性植株</b>。或許,南島語族先祖攜帶構樹旅行時,<b>只帶了雌性植株,之後藉由根部萌蘗無性繁殖的方式</b>,讓構樹生長、傳遍於一個又一個島嶼。<br>", "weight": 68 }, "theme-g8yry7m04r": { "id": "theme-g8yry7m04r", "type": "theme", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "fc7647571b69eb6aec0ec69fcbbceeb7", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/37/37/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=GXkvd5W3", "level": "primary", "title": "復活節島田野調查", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/37/37/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=vvkTLbU-", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/37/37/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=rsZOZLFe", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/37/37/30/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=LMQsfKW-", "mfid": "a3960a2f6bba37646771e9313400a2de", "fileCreator": "鍾國芳", "rights": "鍾國芳", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-02.png?itok=fGKM5I0r", "fileLicence": "創用CC 姓名標示-非商業性-相同方式分享", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "關於構樹,目前我們已經知道的是<br><b>太平洋構樹起源於臺灣!<br></b><b>太平洋構樹為無性繁殖-</b><b>南島語族引入!<br></b><br>2015年底,美國PNAS期刊刊出了研究團隊的成果—<a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://www.pnas.org/content/112/44/13537\"><b><i>A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry</i></b></a>,構樹的DNA不僅記錄了構樹隨著南島語族<b>「出南臺灣」</b>遠渡重洋,經蘇拉威西、新幾內亞至遠大洋洲島嶼的歷史,分佈在福建與臺灣北部的cp-1 似乎也提供了南島語族先祖「<b>出南中國」、「出北臺灣」</b>的線索。而由採集自新幾內亞山區的構樹標本中取得的DNA同時偵測到單倍型cp-17以及中南半島最常見的單倍型cp-34 則顯示了<b>「多元擴散路徑」</b>的可能性,這些不同元素在新幾內亞的匯聚更是與「航海廊道整合說」十分吻合。<br><br>而關於構樹的傳播是否能夠推論南島語族遷徙的路徑,我們還需要確定的是<br><span>太平洋構樹是否為古代引入?<br></span>太平洋構樹的傳播路徑是否\n\n與人類學推論一致?<br><br>過去10年的努力描繪出了堅實的藍圖,近5年來,人類遺傳學分析古人類基因體也得到了可以相互佐證的結果。然而構樹的研究仍在繼續,研究團隊接下來將一步步聚焦,用更完整的採集取樣填補缺失的足跡、更先進的分子技術增加資料分析的精確,而與更多元的領域結合則能豐富視野,更完整的訴說、呈現人類遷移史上重要的一程。&nbsp;<b></b>", "weight": 69 }, "theme-v2iql02osl": { "id": "theme-v2iql02osl", "type": "theme", "sortable": true, "primaryObj": { "oid": "75be818a4da47d582dcef5cd527873d4", "fileType": "image", "fileURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/w1024/muse/33/31/30/37/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=77PsBztB", "level": "primary", "title": "The three voyages of Captain James Cook round the world_plate", "desc": "", "thumbURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/square_thumbnail_100/muse/33/31/30/37/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=4XUTFrbD", "thumbMediumURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_medium/muse/33/31/30/37/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=Ce_QtG35", "thumbBigURI": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/muse_styles/thumbnail_big/muse/33/31/30/37/ascdc_muse.jpg?itok=7XP3RqhI", "mfid": "f11db53e6d965fa820aba9bf73cfee5c", "fileCreator": "James Cook 詹姆斯·庫克,Sir Joseph Banks 約瑟夫·班克斯爵士,Charles Clerke 查爾斯·克萊爾克,John Gore 約翰·戈爾,John Hawkesworth 約翰·哈克斯沃斯", "rights": "MBLWHOI Library", "rightsLogo": "http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/files/muse_brmas/styles/square_thumbnail_100/public/default_rights/memder_non-05.png?itok=0rVBS4da", "fileLicence": "版權所有", "fileOversize": false }, "title": "請輸入頁面標題", "desc": "<div>5千前一個適合遠航的日子,風起帆揚,南島語族人整裝待發,船上滿載工具糧食、作物牲畜,要在下一個小島再打造一個家園。他們投入未知的海相,有了星星和海鳥,前方的航道便豁然開朗,漫長的旅程中,他們是否想過,自己走在人類擴張全球版圖的最後一段路。<br><br></div><div>5千前的今天,來自不同領域、不同國家的學者在同一片海洋及島嶼間奔走,與過往的時空擦肩,這段偉大的海上遷移再次啟航,本研究是第一個以民族植物學切入,以共生物種親緣地理學證據支持「出臺灣說」的研究,同時也藉由構樹的親緣地理反映了南島語族遷徙的全貌,見證了臺灣在南島研究上的重要性。<br><br><br>●相關展覽<br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/23fc9a7b63113167d5e98693ecc46392\">有夠厲害|子曰:「必也正名乎。</a><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/23fc9a7b63113167d5e98693ecc46392\">」</a><br><a target=\"_blank\" rel=\"nofollow\" href=\"http://brmas.openmuseum.tw/muse/exhibition/4c6df6672d9446cad5b03faafe99ed63\">有夠厲害|打樹成衣</a></div><div><br></div>", "weight": 70 }, "thanks": { "id": "thanks", "type": "thanks", "sortable": false, "thanksList": { "中央研究院生物多樣性研究中心 (BRMAS)": { "rights": "中央研究院生物多樣性研究中心 (BRMAS)", "rightsLogo": 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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 112:13537-13542(doi:10.1073/pnas.1503205112)&nbsp;<br><br>●共同研究團隊<br>-國立臺灣史前文化博物館 張至善博士<br>-智利 Andrea Seelenfreund博士與Daniela Seelenfreund博士研究團隊<br><br>●野外調查協助<br><span>Q.-E. Yang<br>W.-B. Xu<br>J. Regalado<br>H. Nguyen<br>I. Kailey (Province Museum of Central Sulawesi)<br>H.-C. Kuo</span><br><br>●研究材料提供<br><span>Y.-C. Chiang<br>C.-I. Peng (China)<br>H.-L. Lui (Vietnam)<br>K. Nakamura (Japan)<br>H. Won (Cambodia)<br>T. Phuttai (Thailand)<br>T.-Y.A. Yang (Solomon Islands)<br>C. Walter (Pitcairn)<br>B. Kam (Bishop Museum)<br>P.v. Dyke (Amy BH Greenwell Ethnobotanical Garden)<br>M. DeMotta and R. Matthews (National Tropical Botanical Garden, NTBG)<br>K. Aiona (NTBG Kahanu Garden)<br>J. Paman (Maui Nui Garden)<br>B. Mulloy, and D. Tanahy (Hawaii)<br></span><span>Easter Island National Park<br>The herbaria of the Natural Historical Museum<br>New York Botanic Garden<br>Missouri Botanical Garden Smithsonian Institute<br></span>B. Torke<br>V. Funk<br>S.-H. Liu<br><br>●研究經費<br>-中央研究院主題研究計畫,整合考古學、生物學、氣象學重建南島語族擴張與遷徙的全史,AS-TP-107-L18<br>-National Science Council, Taiwan Grant NSC-102-2621-B-002-007 (to K.-F.C.)<br>-Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT), Chile Grants 1080633 and 1120175 (to A.S.)<br>-教育部世界南島研究計畫獎助金<br>&nbsp;(to C.-S.C., H.-L.L., and D.S.)<br><br>●參考文獻<br>-張至善(2012)談樹皮布與構樹。林業研究專訊 19(2):62-66&nbsp;<br>-臧振華 (2012) 再論南島語族的起源與擴散問題。南島研究學報 3(1):87-119<br><span>-Barker, C. (2002) Plate 432.\n<i>Broussonetia papyrifera</i>. Curtis’s Bot Magazine 19(1):8–18</span>\n\n<br>-Diamond, J. M. (2000) Taiwan’s gift to the world. Nature 403: 709<br>-Gray, R. D., Drummond, A. J., Greenhill, S. J. (2009) Language phylogenies reveal expansion pulses and pauses in Pacific\nsettlement. Science 323(5913):479–483\n\n<br>-Green, R. C. (2000) Lapita and the\ncultural model for intrusion, integration and innovation. Australian\nArchaeologist: Collected Papers in Honour of Jim Allen, eds Anderson A, Murray\nT (Coombs Academic Publishing, Australian National University, Canberra,\nAustralia), pp 372–392\n\n<br>-Herb Kawainui Kane (1998) Ancient\nHawaii. Kawainui Press\n\nKo AM-S, <i>et al</i>. (2014) Early Austronesians:\nInto and out of Taiwan. Am J Hum Genet 94(3):426–436\n\n<br>-Lipson, M. (2018) Population Turnover in Remote Oceania Shortly after Initial Settlement. Current Biology&nbsp;28:1157–1166&nbsp;<br>-Oppenheimer, S. J., Richard, M. (2001) Polynesian origins. Slow boat to Melanesia? Nature 410(6825):166–167&nbsp;<br>-Matisoo-Smith, E., Robins, J. H. (2004)\nOrigins and dispersals of Pacific peoples: Evidence from mtDNA phylogenies of\nthe Pacific rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(24):9167–9172\n\n<br>-Matisoo-Smith, E. (2014) Ancient DNA\nand the human settlement of the Pacific: A review. Journal of Human Evolution 79:93-104\n<br><span>-Peñailillo, J., Olivares, G., Moncada,\nX., Payacán, C., Chang, C.-S., Chung, K.-F., Matthews, P. J., Seelenfreund, A.,\nSeelenfreund, D.. 2016. Sex distribution of paper mulberry (<i>Broussonetia\npapyrifera</i>) in the Pacific. PLoS One 11:e0161148\n(doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161148)</span>\n\n<br>-Posth,&nbsp;C.,&nbsp;<i>et al</i>. (2018) Language continuity despite population replacement in Remote Oceania. Nature Ecology &amp; Evolution 2:731–740&nbsp;<br>-Skoglund,&nbsp;<span>P.,&nbsp;<i>et al</i>. (2016) Genomic\ninsights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific. Nature 538:510–513</span>\n\n<br>-Nielsen, R. , Akey, J. M. , Jakobsson, M. , Pritchard, J. K. , Tishkoff, S. &amp; Willerslev, E. (2017) Tracing the peopling of the world through\ngenomics. Nature 541:302–310<br>-<span>Seelenfreund, D., <i>et al</i>. (2010) Paper\nmulberry (<i>Broussonetia papyrifera</i>) as a commensal model for human mobility in\nOceania: Anthropological, botanical and genetic considerations. NZ J Bot\n48(3-4):231–247</span>&nbsp; <br><br>●數位典藏與數位人文學研究計畫 AS-ASCDC-107-304&nbsp;<br>", "weight": 71 } }
來源
檳榔幼苗
章璿鍾國芳